Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Silene dioica

red campion

synonym: Lychnis diurna; Melandrium dioicum, diurnum, rubrum, sylvestre

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
fruit borer Noctuidae Hadena perplexa
fruit borer Gelechiidae Cosmardia moritzella
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips atratus
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta lychnidina
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia chalcedonica
leaf vagrant Coccinellidae Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia didymarioides
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia lychnidicola
predator Miridae Dicyphus constrictus
predator Miridae Dicyphus epilobii
predator Miridae Dicyphus flavoviridis
predator Miridae Dicyphus globulifer
flower vagrant Miridae Grypocoris sexguttatus
leaf predator Miridae Dicyphus errans
root scale Rhizoecidae Rhizoecus albidus
fruit borer Noctuidae Hadena bicruris
fruit borer Noctuidae Sideridis rivularis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Parasemia plantaginis
leaf vagrant Geometridae Alcis repandata
flower vagrant doubtful Geometridae Eupithecia virgaureata
fruit vagrant Geometridae Perizoma affinitata
fruit vagrant Geometridae Perizoma flavofasciata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia venosata
stem borer Anthomyzidae Anagnota bicolor
stem borer Anthomyzidae Paranthomyza nitida
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Hauptidia maroccana
stem gall larva Curculionidae Lixus brevipes
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera arator
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida subreticulata
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Cassida margaritacea
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Caryocolum viscariella
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
fruit gall Curculionidae Sibinia pellucens
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Sibinia viscariae
leaf leaf spot Dothideales Caryophylloseptoria lychnidis
stem borer Agromyzidae Ophiomyia melandryi
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia steini
flower gall Microbotryales Microbotryum silenes-dioicae
flower gall Urocystidales Thecaphora melandrii
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Neomikiella lychnidis
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe buhrii
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora melandryi
leaf leaf spot incertae sedis Marssonia delastrei
leaf gall Aphididae Brachycaudus klugkisti
leaf gall Aphididae Brachycaudus lychnidis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Amauromyza flavifrons
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya flavifrons
leaf miner doubtful Coleophoridae Coleophora lithargyrinella
leaf miner Drosophilidae Scaptomyza graminum
leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara halterata
leaf pustule aecia telia Pucciniales Uromyces behenis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia behenis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces verruculosus
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia arenariae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ornatus
stem miner main Agromyzidae Ophiomyia melandricaulis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 1.iv.2023