Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Rumex aquaticus

scottish dock

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia rumicis
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia rubella
root collar borer Noctuidae Hydraecia ultima
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Noctua comes
stem borer Noctuidae Hydraecia micacea
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Lycaena dispar
stem borer Apionidae Apion frumentarium
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Gastrophysa viridula
root collar borer Crambidae Ostrinia palustralis
root borer Syrphidae Cheilosia gigantea
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus bardanae
leaf gall Microbotryales Microbotryum warmingii
leaf gall Psyllidae Aphalara purpurascens
leaf miner Anthomyiidae Pegomya solennis
leaf miner Gracillariidae Calybites phasianipennella
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis rumicis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia phragmitis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces rumicis
stem gall Scathophaghidae Norellisoma spinimanum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 26.vii.2022