Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Hippocrepis comosa

horseshoe vetch

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Arethusana arethusa
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Syncopacma patruella
leaf vagrant doubtful Miridae Hadrodemus m-flavum
flower vagrant rarely Noctuidae Sideridis reticulata
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia w-latinum
flower hidden Pyralidae Oncocera semirubella
root collar vagrant Noctuidae Euxoa recussa
root collar vagrant Noctuidae Euxoa decora
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Euxoa obelisca
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Xestia c-nigrum
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Anarta odontites
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia aliena
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Zygaena ephialtes
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Zygaena lonicerae
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euclidia glyphica
leaf vagrant Geometridae Heliomata glarearia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Gnophos furvata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Charissa obscurata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Aspitates gilvaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ematurga atomaria
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Zygaena filipendulae
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Plebejus argus
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Polyommatus coridon
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Polyommatus hispana
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Polyommatus bellargus
leaf vagrant Pieridae Colias croceus
leaf vagrant Pieridae Colias phicomone
leaf vagrant Pieridae Colias hyale
leaf vagrant Pieridae Colias alfacariensis
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Zygaena angelicae
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Zygaena loti
leaf hidden Hesperiidae Erynnis tages
leaf vagrant Zygaena transalpina
fruit borer Eurytomidae Bruchophagus hippocrepidis
leaf vagrant Ulopidae Utecha trivia
fruit borer Chrysomelidae Bruchidius pusillus
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Mirificarma eburnella
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Charagmus intermedius
unknown borer larva Apionidae Hemitrichapion waltoni
unknown borer larva Apionidae Hemitrichapion lanigerum
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia scopigera
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia ichneumoniformis
fruit gall Curculionidae Tychius elegantulus
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura geisenheyneri
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe trifoliorum
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura comosae
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Macrolabis hippocrepidis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza congesta
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora colutella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora onobrychiella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Trifurcula cryptella
leaf pustule main Chytridiales Synchytrium alpicola
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces hippocrepidis
flower vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon loti


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 16.iii.2023