Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Dorycnium canary clover

Incl. Bonjeania

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Dorycnium by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a corridor or blotch => 2

1b fleck mine => 7

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a older larvae live free among spun leaves; no egg shell visible where the mine started => 3

2b larvae mine all their life; at the start of the mine an upper-surface or lower-surface egg shell => 4

3a larva dark in colour: Aproaerema anthyllidella

3b larva whitish, with red length lines: Aproaerema cincticulella

4a upper-surface blotch, without a trace of a preceding gallery: Leucoptera lotella

4b mine starts as a gallery => 5

5a gallery from start to end, descending down to the stem: Trifurcula josefklimeschi

5b the gallery widens to a clear blotch => 6

6a pupa usually in the mine; larva: thorax dorsally with at either side 10, 10 and 8 setae, resp.: Trifurcula eurema

6b pupation outside the mine; larva: thorax dorsally with at either side 13, 11 en 9 setae, resp.: Trifurcula cryptella

7a larva in a helicoidal case; opening in the mine irregular and relatively large: Apterona helicoidella

7b larva in a more or less straight case; opening small, neatly round => 8

8a pistol case, with a large pallium => 9

8b composite leaf case => 10

9a case ochreous yellow; pallium with a pair of winglike extensions: Coleophora vicinella

9b case black; pallium homogenous: Coleophora spumosella

10a case remarkably long and slender, composed of 7-9 leaf fragments: Coleophora bilineatella

10b case more compact, made out of less fragments => 11

11a case almost flat, composed of leaf fragments perpendicular to the long axis: Coleophora squamella (paragenistae)

11b case not that extremely flat, leaf fragments placed obliquely => 12

12a mouth opening more or less laterally placed => 13

12b mouth opening normal => 14

13a case very strongly arched: Coleophora acrisella

13b case almost straight: Coleophora medelichensis

14a mouth angle ≥ 45°: Coleophora squamella

14b mouth angle 40-45°: Coleophora congeriella

Not included in the key: Coleophora discordella (error?), ononidella (error?), oriolella (no leafminer), valesianella (error?).

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 26.x.2023