Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Lotus birdsfoot-trefoil

Incl. Tetragonolobus

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a blotch, without initial corridor => 2

1b corridor from start to end => 4

1c corridor that suddenly widens into a clear blotch => 6

1d tentiform mine => 10

1d fleck mine => 11

1e galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a blotch large, containing abundant frass; larva in the mine until close to pupation: Leucoptera lotella

2b blotch generally small with little or no frass; after a short time the larvae start living between spun leaves => 3

3a larva slate grey, anteriorly a white dorsal line: Aproaerema anthyllidella

3b larva yellow with red transverse bands: Syncopacma taeniolella

4a corridor full depth; frass in a central line: Coleophora discordella (beginmijn)

4b corridor upper- or lower-surface; frass different => 5

5a frass in a broad green central band, minute black grains at either side: Liriomyza congesta

5b frass in isolated black grains, no green central band: Chromatomyia horticicola

6a larva a maggot; mine hook-shaped, blotch part situated over the midrib: Agromyza nana

6b larva with chitinised head; mine not hook-shaped, positioned differently => 7

7a blotch at the leaf margin; there also is the beginning; no egg shell where the mine begins: Coleophora discordella (initial mine)

7b blotch begins near the leaf basis, from there expanding over the leaflet; at the begin a small egg shell => 8

8a Canary Islands, Madeira: Trifurcula ridiculosa

8b species from the European continent => 9

9a pupa usually in the mine; larva: thorax dorsally with at either side 10, 10 and 8 setae, resp.: Trifurcula eurema

9b pupation outside the mine; larva: thorax dorsally with at either side 13, 11 en 9 setae, resp.: Trifurcula cryptella, manygoza

10a the leaflet is completely mined: Phyllonorycter nigrescentella

10b the leaflet in only incompletely mined: Phyllonorycter insignitella

11a larva free, not in a case or tube: Polyommatus icarus

11b larva in a silken tube, into which it withdraws during feeding pauses => 12

11c larva in a transportable case => 13

12a larva greyish-green with whitish length lines: Scythris picaepennis

12b larva dark purple with whitish transverse bands: Scythris siccella

13a case helicoidal; hole in the mine not precisely round: Apterona helicoidella (northern Europa) & helicinella (south Europe)

13b case tubular; hole precisely round => 14

14a pistol case, entirely covered by a white pallium: Coleophora spumosella

14b lobe case => 15

14b composite leaf case => 16

15a case dorsoventrally compressed: Coleophora festivella

15b case different: Coleophora colutella

16a species from the Canary Islands: Coleophora loti

16b soorten from the European continent =>17

17a case laterally compressed, consisting of a few large leaf frafments: Coleophora squamella

17b case compressed only near the end, regular outline: Coleophora discordella

Not included in the key: Cnephasia spec.; Coleophora acrisella (occurrence on this plant needs confirmation).

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 27.v.2019