Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Lotus pedunculatus

greater bird’s-foot-trefoil

synonym: Lotus uliginosus

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
fruitgallApionidaeIschnopterapion loti
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips flavus
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius seminarius
leafvagrantCurculionidaeHypera plantaginis
leafhiddenTortricidaeCelypha rivulana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArgyrotaenia ljungiana
leafhiddenGelechiidaeSyncopacma larseniella
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona cinnamomeus
stemvagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon pisum
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza congesta
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora colutella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora discordella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora squamella
leafminerLycaenidaePolyommatus icarus
leafminerGelechiidaeSyncopacma taeniolella
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis loti
flowervagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon loti
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona waterhousi
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona gemellatus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeCoelositona cambricus
stemborerlarvaApionidaeSynapion ebeninum
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria euaspis
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeContarinia barbichei
fruitgallCecidomyiidaeAsphondylia melanopus
stemminerNepticulidaeTrifurcula subnitidella
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
root collarvagrantAphididaeAphis lotiradicis
fruitgallApionidaeIschnopterapion fallens
fruitgallApionidaeIschnopterapion modestum
fruitgallmainApionidaeIschnopterapion plumbeomicans
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia loti
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeJaapiella loticola
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe trifoliorum
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora lotorum
leafleaf spotCapnodialesOvularia sphaeroidea
leafminerLyonetiidaeLeucoptera lotella
leafminerNepticulidaeTrifurcula cryptella
leafminerNepticulidaeTrifurcula eurema
leafminerNepticulidaeTrifurcula ridiculosa
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces euphorbiae-corniculatae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 9.ix.2020