Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Bituminaria

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root film Helicobasidiaceae Helicobasidium purpureum
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora cassiocarpa
leaf leaf spot Phaeosphaeriaceae Hendersonia pontica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Euplexia euplexina
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mniotype usurpatrix
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Cornutiplusia circumflexa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Chrysodeixis chalcites
leaf vagrant Miridae Reuterista instabilis
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia pesarinii
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia violacea
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia violacea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Synthymia fixa
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia gigas
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis coriacanus
leaf hidden Pyralidae Oxybia transversella
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia longana
flower hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia longana
flower gall Aphididae Aphis cytisorum
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia psoraleae
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia vulcanica
root borer doubtful Sesiidae Bembecia sirphiformis
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia ichneumoniformis
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia albanensis
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe pisi var. pisi
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe trifoliorum
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula papilionacearum
leaf miner Gelechiidae Aproaerema anthyllidella
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 13.x.2022