Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Medicago medick

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Medicago by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a fleck mine => 2

1b larva with feet and a chitinised head; mine never a gallery => 8

1c larva a maggot; mine a gallery, or blotch preceded by a gallery => 17

1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a larva lives free under the leaf: Polyommatus icarus

2b larva mines from a case => 3

3a case helicoidal => 4

3b case different, essentially straight => 5

4a convolutions clearly separated by a deep suture: Apterona helicoidella

4b convolutions indistinctly separated, suture shallow: Apterona gracilis

5a larva in a sheath case: Coleophora fuscociliella

5b .. composite leaf case (occurrence on this host plant doubtful): Coleophora discordella

5c .. lobe case: Coleophora hospitiella

5d .. pistol case => 6

6a case up to 16 mm, straw-coloured with a pallium of about 1/5 of the length of the case: Coleophora cartilaginella

6b case shorter, darker, with a proportionally much larger pallium => 7

7a pallium at its base with a pair of winglike extensions: Coleophora vicinella

7b pallium without extensions: Coleophora spumosella

8a tentiform mine with length folds in the epidemis; pupation within the mine => 9

8b mine flat, without folds => 11

9a pupa: cremaster with two pairs of spines that are set very close together; especially the outer spines strong: Phyllonoryter nigrescentella

9b cremaster with two pairs of long and thin spines that are set widely apart => 10

10a pupa: cremaster spines with a notch just below the terminal hook; abdomen segment 10 about as broad as long: Phyllonorycter medicaginella

10b cremaster spines not notched below the terminal hooks; abdomen segment 10 broader than long: Phyllonorycter insignitella

11a frass in concentric arcs; the larva mines all its life: Leucoptera onobrychidella

11b frass, if at all present, never in arcs; older larvae live free among spun leaves => 12

12a larva: dark grey => 13

12b whitish, yellowish, to rather dark purplish brown => 16

13a mine quite small, (almost) without frass => 14

13b mine not remarkably small, with clear amounts of frass: Aproaerema anthyllidella

14a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

14b pinacula black => 15

15a larva: behind/below the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

15b anal comb absent: Cnephasia stephensiana

16a anal shield shining black: Syncopacma vinella

16b anal shield pale brown: Syncopacma taeniolella

17a quite short gallery that seems to end upon a thick vein: Ophiomyia curvipalpis

17b mine not like this => 18

18a mine a corridor until the end => 19

18b corridor in the end widened into a clear primary blotch => 25

19a puparium formed in the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

19b larva leaves the mine before pupation through a semicircular exit slit in the epidermis => 20

20a corridor pinnately branched, main and side branches overlying the midrib and thick lateral veins: Liriomyza strigata

20b corridor little branched, not associated in this way with the leaf venation => 21

21a larva: cephalic skeleton with two rearwards directed arms => 22

21b cephalic skeleton with three rearwards directed arms: Agromyza frontella, A. drepanura, & A. roskoznyi

22a frass in a broad green central band with minute black granules at either side: Liriomyza congesta

22b frass in black strings or thread fragments at either side of the corridor => 23

23a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 hook-like papillae: Liriomyza trifolii

23b rear spiraculum with 6-12 papillae => 24

24a gallery usually ends in a secondary blotch: Liriomyza bryoniae

24b usually no secondary blotch: Liriomyza cicerina

25a corridor part very shallow, whitish; blotch much deeper, partly even full depth (very common species): Agromyza nana

25b mine deeper, green; in the blotch (almost) no full depth parts => 26

26a corridor part of the mine follows the leaf margin for some distance; frass in green lumps: Phytoliriomyza variegata

26b corridor part free of the leaf margin; frass different => 27

27a frass at least partly in thread fragments; larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza xanthocera

27b frass powdery, in green – black clouds along the sides of the mine; rear spiraculum (virtually) consisting of one acute pointed structure => 28

28a larva: end of the rear spiraculum dark, bud-like: Scaptomyza graminum

28b end of rear spiraculum light coloured, inverse bottle-shape: Scaptomyza flava

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 12.xii.2019