Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Medicago lupulina

black medick

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root film Xylariaceae Dematophora necatrix
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora medicaginis
Miridae Chlamydatus saltitans
leaf vagrant Miridae Chlamydatus pullus
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus chrysanthemi
predator Miridae Deraeocoris punctulatus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Eurydema ornata
leaf vagrant Coreidae Ceraleptus lividus
leaf vagrant Coreidae Ceraleptus gracilicornis
leaf vagrant Coreidae Coriomeris denticulatus
leaf vagrant Coreidae Coriomeris scabricornis
leaf vagrant Coreidae Bathysolen nubilus
leaf pustule uredinia telia doubtful Pucciniales Uromyces pisi
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia doubtful Pucciniales Uromyces fallens
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Noctua comes
flower hidden Pyralidae Oncocera semirubella
leaf vagrant Geometridae Heliomata glarearia
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Macrothylacia rubi
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Zizeeria knysna
leaf vagrant Geometridae Scopula emutaria
leaf miner Lycaenidae Polyommatus icarus
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Callophrys rubi
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Cupido alcetas
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Cupido argiades
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Plebejus argus
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Plebejus idas
leaf vagrant Pieridae Colias hyale
fruit borer Eurytomidae Bruchophagus medicaginis
fruit borer Eurytomidae Bruchophagus roddi
flower hidden Curculionidae Hypera meles
fruit borer larva doubtful Apionidae Eutrichapion viciae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Trialeurodes vaporariorum
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Gonioctena fornicata
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Mirificarma eburnella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Iwaruna biguttella
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona cinnamomeus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona inops
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona longulus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona macularius
root vagrant larva rarely Curculionidae Sitona hispidulus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona tenuis
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona humeralis
stem borer larva Apionidae Stenopterapion tenue
root collar vagrant Aphididae Aphis medicaginis
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia ononidis
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
systemic gall Eriophyidae Aculus acraspis
fruit gall Curculionidae Tychius junceus
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria plicator
leaf bud gall Apionidae Holotrichapion pisi
leaf bud gall Apionidae Holotrichapion pullum
leaf bud gall Apionidae Protapion filirostre
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia lupulinae
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura lupulinae
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe pisi var. pisi
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora romanica
leaf leaf spot Helotiales Pseudopeziza medicaginis
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Jaapiella medicaginis
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Jaapiella jaapiana
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza frontella
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza nana
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza congesta
leaf miner Gelechiidae Aproaerema anthyllidella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter insignitella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter medicaginella
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces punctatus
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces striatus
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
root collar gall Blastocladiales Physoderma alfalfae
root gall Rhizobiales Rhizobium leguminosarum
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus populi
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pisum
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis trifolii
root collar vagrant Aphididae Aphis coronillae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 25.x.2022