Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Melilotus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
unknown scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus graminicola
unknown scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus ferulae
root scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus pumilus
fruit gall doubtful Curculionidae Tychius depressus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona striatellus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona lepidus
flower pustule Aeolothripidae Orothrips priesneri
seeds vagrant Carabidae Harpalus atratus
seeds vagrant Carabidae Harpalus distinguendus
seeds vagrant Carabidae Harpalus honestus
seeds vagrant adult Carabidae Harpalus rubripes
seeds vagrant Carabidae Ophonus azureus
seeds vagrant Carabidae Harpalus griseus
seeds vagrant Carabidae Harpalus rufipes
seeds vagrant Carabidae Pterostichus melanarius
systemic vagrant Carabidae Zabrus tenebrioides
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips intermedius
seeds vagrant Carabidae Acupalpus meridianus
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara apricaria
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara aulica
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara consularis
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara convexior
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara convexiuscula
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara eurynota
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara ingenua
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara littorea
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara ovata
seeds vagrant Carabidae Amara similata
seeds vagrant Carabidae Anisodactylus signatus
seeds vagrant Carabidae Calathus ambiguus
seeds vagrant Carabidae Calathus fuscipes
seeds vagrant Carabidae Harpalus affinis
flower hidden Thripidae Kakothrips robustus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips pillichi
unknown unknown Aeolothripidae Melanthrips tortus
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips fuscipennis
leaf vagrant Thripidae Stenothrips graminum
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips frici
flower hidden Thripidae Neohydatothrips gracilicornis
flower hidden Thripidae Odontothrips confusus
flower hidden Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips setiger
leaf vagrant Geometridae Chiasmia clathrata
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Herophila tristis
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia lagodechiana
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Zizeeria karsandra
leaf miner Gelechiidae Syncopacma karvoneni
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips tabaci
root film Plectosphaerellaceae Verticillium dahliae
leaf leaf spot Drepanopezizaceae Pseudopeziza trifolii
stem pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia trifoliorum
leaf pustule Pucciniaceae Uromyces marinus
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Macrosporium medicaginis
leaf leaf spot Leptospaeriaceae Longiseptatispora meliloti
stem borer Unknown code! Tortricidae Grapholita compositella
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthocephalus coriaceus
leaf vagrant Coreidae Ulmicola spinipes
leaf vagrant Coreidae Bathysolen nubilus
root collar vagrant doubtful Miridae Capsus ater
flower vagrant Miridae Stenotus binotatus
leaf vagrant Coreidae Coriomeris denticulatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthocephalus saltator
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthops forelii
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthops basalis
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthops kalmii
leaf vagrant Miridae Paredrocoris pectoralis
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus bipunctatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Plagiognathus chrysanthemi
leaf vagrant Miridae Polymerus cognatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris lineolatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris vandalicus
leaf vagrant Miridae Atomoscelis onusta
leaf vagrant Miridae Calocoris roseomaculatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Halticus luteicollis
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus gemellatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus pratensis
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus rugulipennis
leaf vagrant Miridae Nanopsallus carduellus
leaf vagrant Miridae Notostira elongata
leaf vagrant Miridae Oncotylus punctipes
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Graphosoma semipunctatum
leaf vagrant rarely Pentatomidae Graphosoma italicum
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia cardui
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Chersotis rectangula
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia violacea
root collar borer Cerambycidae Plagionotus floralis
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthia suturalis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia suasa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia aliena
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Melanchra persicariae
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera buhri
stem borer Cerambycidae Agapanthiola leucaspis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Agrochola lychnidis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Amphipyra tragopoginis
flower vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis viriplaca
stem gall Eulophidae Aprostocetus monacoi
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euclidia mi
leaf vagrant Erebidae Dicallomera fascelina
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Macrothylacia rubi
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ascotis selenaria
leaf vagrant Erebidae Utetheisa pulchella
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Zizeeria knysna
leaf vagrant Geometridae Isturgia arenacearia
flower vagrant Geometridae Phaiogramma etruscaria
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Cupido minimus
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Cyaniris semiargus
leaf vagrant Pieridae Colias croceus
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Cupido argiades
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Celastrina argiolus
flower vagrant Lycaenidae Glaucopsyche alexis
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Plebejus idas
leaf vagrant Pieridae Colias hyale
fruit borer Eurytomidae Bruchophagus roddi
stem borer Buprestidae Capnodis tenebrionis
leaf vagrant Membracidae Gargara genistae
unknown unknown Curculionidae Tychius naxiae
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia vasiljevi
unknown unknown Curculionidae Tychius bicolor
fruit gall unknown on Melilotus albus
flower hidden Thripidae Odontothrips melioti
flower hidden Thripidae Odontothrips loti
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
root vagrant Chrysomelidae Derocrepis rufipes
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera miles
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera melancholica
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera postica
unknown unknown Apionidae Catapion corsicum
root scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus tergrigorianae
root scale Pseudococcidae Atrococcus achilleae
leaf hidden Crambidae Nomophila noctuella
leaf vagrant Tortricidae Cacoecimorpha pronubana
root gall Rhizobiales Sinorhizobium meliloti
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia stephensiana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
flower hidden Thripidae Frankliniella intonsa
unknown unknown Eriophyidae Aculus meliloti
leaf leaf spot Helotiales Pseudopeziza meliloti
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona puncticollis
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona lineatus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona cylindricollis
fruit borer larva doubtful Apionidae Eutrichapion viciae
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia iberica
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia scopigera
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Cercospora davisii
root borer Curculionidae Hylastinus obscurus
stem borer Apionidae Stenopterapion meliloti
root collar vagrant Aphididae Aphis medicaginis
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza submetallescens
fruit vagrant Coleophoridae Coleophora trifolii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis comosa
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia spec. on Melilotus
fruit gall Curculionidae Tychius breviusculus
fruit gall Curculionidae Tychius junceus
fruit gall Curculionidae Tychius meliloti
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe pisi var. pisi
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe trifoliorum
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula papilionacearum
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora meliloti
leaf gall Curculionidae Tychius crassirostris
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza cicerina
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza congesta
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza xanthocera
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza frontella
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza nana
leaf miner Gelechiidae Aproaerema anthyllidella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter medicaginella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf miner Tortricidae Ancylis badiana
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces baeumlerianus
stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus populi
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon kondoi
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pisum
leaf vagrant main Aphididae Therioaphis riehmi
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis trifolii
systemic vagrant Aphididae Nearctaphis bakeri


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 23.i.2024