Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Ononis

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
root film Helicobasidiaceae Helicobasidium purpureum
leaf leaf spot Dothideomycetes incertae sedis Asteromella ononidis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniaceae Uromyces cenisiae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia winteri
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Scolopostethus pilosus
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthocephalus coriaceus
leaf vagrant Miridae Calocoris roseomaculatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris varipes
leaf predator Miridae Globiceps flavomaculatus
predator Miridae Dicyphus globulifer
leaf vagrant Miridae Globiceps horvathi
leaf vagrant doubtful Lygaeidae Macroplax fasciata
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Liorhyssus hyalinus
leaf vagrant Miridae Capsodes gothicus
root vagrant Thyreocoridae Thyreocoris scarabaeoides
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Spilostethus saxatilis
flower vagrant Miridae Megalocoleus molliculus
leaf vagrant Coreidae Loxocnemis dentator
leaf vagrant Miridae Dicyphus hyalinipennis
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Codophila varia
leaf vagrant Miridae Capsodes sulcatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris seticornis
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris crux
leaf vagrant Miridae Macrotylus nasutus
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthocephalus saltator
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygus gemellatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Trigonotylus pulchellus
leaf predator Miridae Dicyphus cerastii
leaf predator Miridae Dicyphus albonasutus
predator Miridae Orthotylus ochrotrichus
predator Miridae Dicyphus flavoviridis
predator Miridae Macrolophus melanotoma
leaf vagrant Berytidae Gampsocoris gatai
predator Miridae Dicyphus annulatus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Eurydema ornata
leaf vagrant Alydidae Alydus calcaratus
leaf vagrant Berytidae Neides tipularius
leaf vagrant Berytidae Gampsocoris culicinus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Dolycoris baccarum
leaf vagrant Miridae Megalocoleus exsanguis
leaf vagrant rarely Miridae Macrotylus atricapillus
predator Miridae Dicyphus bolivari
leaf vagrant Berytidae Gampsocoris enslini
leaf vagrant rarely Miridae Phytocoris virescens
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Piezodorus teretipes
leaf vagrant Plataspididae Coptosoma scutellatum
leaf vagrant Plataspididae Coptosoma mucronatum
predator Miridae Macrolophus caliginosus
leaf vagrant Alydidae Camptopus lateralis
leaf vagrant Miridae Cyrtopeltis geniculata
leaf vagrant Miridae Macrotylus paykullii
predator Nabidae Nabis reuterianus
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Corizus hyoscyami
leaf vagrant Berytidae Berytinus signoreti
leaf vagrant Miridae Halticus apterus
leaf vagrant Berytidae Gampsocoris punctipes
leaf vagrant Berytidae Berytinus clavipes
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Polia hepatica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Polia nebulosa
flower hidden Pyralidae Oncocera semirubella
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Actebia praecox
root borer Cerambycidae Chlorophorus trifasciatus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Polia bombycina
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia aliena
root vagrant Curculionidae Charagmus stierlini
root vagrant Curculionidae Coelositona ocellatus
flower vagrant Noctuidae Xylena exsoleta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Pyrrhia umbra
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis ononis
flower vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis viriplaca
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta euphorbiae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Autographa gamma
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta rumicis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Gynaephora selenitica
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Zygaena carniolica
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Lasiocampa trifolii
leaf vagrant Saturniidae Saturnia pavonia
root borer Tortricidae Agapeta hamana
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis peltigera
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ematurga atomaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Phaiogramma faustinata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia satyrata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia subumbrata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia centaureata
leaf miner Lycaenidae Polyommatus icarus
leaf vagrant Geometridae Camptogramma bilineata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Aplasta ononaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Chlorissa viridata
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Callophrys rubi
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Zygaena hilaris
leaf vagrant Pieridae Colias hyale
unknown unknown larva Apionidae Catapion jaffense
fruit borer Eurytomidae Bruchophagus ononis
root borer Buprestidae Sphenoptera barbarica
leaf vagrant Membracidae Gargara genistae
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Stictocoris picturatus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Austroagallia sinuata
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Donus zoilus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Tychius longicollis
fruit borer Chrysomelidae Bruchidius borowieci
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera ononidis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis coriacanus
leaf hidden Tortricidae Celypha lacunana
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Marasmarcha oxydactylus
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Marasmarcha lunaedactyla
unknown unknown Gelechiidae Syncopacma wormiella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Mirificarma cytisella
fruit borer Pyralidae Etiella zinckenella
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Stangeia siceliota
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Iwaruna biguttella
leaf hidden Crambidae Eurrhypis pollinalis
leaf hidden doubtful Tortricidae Choristoneura diversana
leaf miner younger larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
leaf hidden older larva Tortricidae Cnephasia asseclana
flower hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia genitalana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Cnephasia incertana
flower hidden Thripidae Odontothrips loti
leaf hidden Tortricidae Philedonides lunana
stem borer Tortricidae Grapholita caecana
fruit borer Pyralidae Pima boisduvaliella
flower borer Pterophoridae Amblyptilia punctidactyla
flower borer Pterophoridae Amblyptilia acanthadactyla
fruit borer Tortricidae Cydia microgrammana
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona inops
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona callosus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona brucki
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona lineatus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona tenuis
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Charagmus griseus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona lateralis
unknown borer larva Apionidae Holotrichapion umbrinum
flower borer larva Apionidae Pseudoprotapion alonsochrysomimus
fruit borer larva Apionidae Protapion ononidis
stem borer larva Apionidae Catapion koestlini
fruit borer larva Apionidae Holotrichapion ononis
flower borer larva doubtful Apionidae Hemitrichapion pavidum
leaf vagrant adult Apionidae Catapion burdigalense
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pisum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis sambuci
leaf vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pilosum
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia priesneri
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia himmighoffeni
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia fibigeri
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia flavida
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia scopigera
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia albanensis
root borer Curculionidae Hylastinus obscurus
root collar vagrant rarely Aphididae Aphis medicaginis
stem borer Agromyzidae Melanagromyza submetallescens
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia ononidis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis brunnea
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis ononidis
leaf vagrant doubtful Aphididae Therioaphis obscura
systemic gall Eriophyidae Aceria ononidis
fruit gall summer generation Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia ononidis
fruit gall Curculionidae Tychius striatulus
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria ononidistrifolii
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia ononidis
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe chouardii
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe pisi var. cruchetiana
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe trifoliorum
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula papilionacearum
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora ononidis
leaf gall spring generation Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia ononidis
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura columnae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza cicerina
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza congesta
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza lathyri
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora cartilaginella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ononidella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora spumosella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Aproaerema anthyllidella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Mirificarma cytisella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parectopa ononidis
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter insignitella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter medicaginella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf miner Scythrididae Scythris siccella
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces bugranae
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces diniensis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces natricis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces ononidis
stem borer doubtful Curculionidae Hypera nigrirostris
flower gall Aphididae Aphis cytisorum
leaf gall Aphididae Megoura viciae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis alatina
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis ononidis
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pisum ononis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis trifolii
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 19.i.2023