Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Ononis natrix

yellow restharrow

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Herpisticus rectipes
fruit borer Tortricidae Cydia vallesiaca
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ononidella
leaf vagrant doubtful Lygaeidae Macroplax fasciata
seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Scolopostethus pilosus
leaf vagrant Coreidae Loxocnemis dentator
leaf vagrant Miridae Dicyphus hyalinipennis
leaf predator Miridae Dicyphus cerastii
leaf predator Miridae Dicyphus albonasutus
predator Miridae Macrolophus melanotoma
leaf vagrant Miridae Cyrtopeltis geniculata
leaf vagrant Miridae Macrotylus paykullii
predator Nabidae Nabis reuterianus
predator Miridae Macrolophus caliginosus
leaf vagrant rarely Miridae Phytocoris virescens
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris lineolatus
leaf vagrant rarely Miridae Macrotylus atricapillus
predator Miridae Dicyphus bolivari
root borer Cerambycidae Chlorophorus trifasciatus
flower vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis viriplaca
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Zygaena hilaris
root borer Buprestidae Sphenoptera barbarica
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera ononidis
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Marasmarcha lunaedactyla
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Marasmarcha oxydactylus
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Stangeia siceliota
flower borer Pterophoridae Amblyptilia acanthadactyla
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona brucki
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona tenuis
fruit borer larva Apionidae Holotrichapion ononis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pilosum
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia himmighoffeni
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia flavida
root borer Curculionidae Hylastinus obscurus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
stem vagrant main Aphididae Aphis brunnea
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis trifolii
systemic gall Eriophyidae Aceria ononidis
fruit gall summer generation Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia ononidis
fruit gall Curculionidae Tychius striatulus
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia ononidis
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe pisi var. cruchetiana
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora ononidis
leaf gall spring generation Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia ononidis
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces ononidis
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pisum ononis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis alatina


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 11.xii.2023