Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Ononis spinosa subsp. procurrens

common restharrow

synonym: Ononis procurrens, repens, spinosa subsp. maritima

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Zygaena hilaris
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ononidella
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia winteri
leaf vagrant Miridae Capsodes sulcatus
predator Miridae Orthotylus ochrotrichus
predator Miridae Dicyphus annulatus
predator Miridae Dicyphus flavoviridis
leaf vagrant Miridae Macrotylus paykullii
predator Miridae Dicyphus errans
leaf vagrant Rhopalidae Corizus hyoscyami
leaf vagrant Berytidae Berytinus clavipes
leaf vagrant Berytidae Gampsocoris punctipes
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Actebia praecox
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia aliena
flower vagrant Noctuidae Xylena exsoleta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Pyrrhia umbra
root borer Tortricidae Agapeta hamana
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ematurga atomaria
leaf miner Lycaenidae Polyommatus icarus
leaf vagrant Geometridae Camptogramma bilineata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Aplasta ononaria
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Stictocoris picturatus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Tychius longicollis
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera ononidis
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Marasmarcha lunaedactyla
leaf hidden Crambidae Eurrhypis pollinalis
flower borer Pterophoridae Amblyptilia acanthadactyla
fruit borer Tortricidae Cydia microgrammana
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona inops
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Charagmus griseus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona lateralis
fruit borer larva Apionidae Holotrichapion ononis
fruit borer larva Apionidae Protapion ononidis
stem borer larva Apionidae Catapion koestlini
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia albanensis
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia flavida
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis trifolii
systemic gall Eriophyidae Aceria ononidis
fruit gall summer generation Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia ononidis
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia ononidis
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe pisi var. cruchetiana
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora ononidis
leaf gall spring generation Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia ononidis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza cicerina
leaf miner Gelechiidae Aproaerema anthyllidella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parectopa ononidis
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter insignitella
leaf miner Scythrididae Scythris siccella
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces ononidis
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pisum ononis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis ononidis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 25.iii.2023