Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Ononis spinosa

spiny restharrow

synonym: Ononis campestris, repens subsp. spinosa, vulgaris

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips flavus
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia winteri
fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Spilostethus saxatilis
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Codophila varia
predator Miridae Dicyphus annulatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Adelphocoris lineolatus
leaf vagrant Berytidae Gampsocoris enslini
leaf vagrant Miridae Macrotylus paykullii
leaf vagrant Miridae Megalocoleus exsanguis
leaf vagrant Berytidae Berytinus clavipes
leaf vagrant Berytidae Gampsocoris punctipes
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Polia bombycina
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis peltigera
flower vagrant Noctuidae Heliothis viriplaca
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Pyrrhia umbra
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta rumicis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Gynaephora selenitica
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Lasiocampa trifolii
leaf vagrant Saturniidae Saturnia pavonia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ematurga atomaria
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia satyrata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia subumbrata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia centaureata
leaf miner Lycaenidae Polyommatus icarus
leaf vagrant Geometridae Aplasta ononaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Chlorissa viridata
leaf vagrant Pieridae Colias hyale
unknown unknown larva Apionidae Catapion jaffense
fruit borer Eurytomidae Bruchophagus ononis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Stictocoris picturatus
leaf vagrant Membracidae Gargara genistae
stem borer doubtful Curculionidae Hypera nigrirostris
fruit borer Chrysomelidae Bruchidius borowieci
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera ononidis
leaf vagrant Pterophoridae Marasmarcha lunaedactyla
unknown unknown Gelechiidae Syncopacma wormiella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Mirificarma cytisella
stem borer Tortricidae Grapholita caecana
fruit borer Pyralidae Pima boisduvaliella
flower borer Pterophoridae Amblyptilia acanthadactyla
flower borer Pterophoridae Amblyptilia punctidactyla
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona lateralis
flower borer larva doubtful Apionidae Hemitrichapion pavidum
fruit borer larva Apionidae Holotrichapion ononis
fruit borer larva Apionidae Protapion ononidis
stem borer larva Apionidae Catapion koestlini
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pisum
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis sambuci
leaf vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pilosum
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia scopigera
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia albanensis
root collar vagrant rarely Aphididae Aphis medicaginis
stem miner Agromyzidae Ophiomyia ononidis
leaf vagrant doubtful Aphididae Therioaphis obscura
systemic gall Eriophyidae Aceria ononidis
fruit gall summer generation Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia ononidis
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia ononidis
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe pisi var. cruchetiana
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula papilionacearum
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora ononidis
leaf gall spring generation Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia ononidis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza cicerina
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ononidella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Aproaerema anthyllidella
leaf miner Gelechiidae Mirificarma cytisella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parectopa ononidis
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter medicaginella
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces ononidis
stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pisum ononis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis alatina
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis ononidis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 19.i.2023