Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Trifolium clover

Incl. Amoria, Chrysapis.

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Trifolium by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a fleck mine: Apterona helicoidella

1b under-surface tentiform mine => 2

1c corridor or blotch => 3

1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a m ine strongly inflated, almost the entire leaf folding over it; upper side white-mottled; cremaster with two pairs of thorns that are set close together; especially the outer pair stout: Phyllonoryter nigrescentella

2b mine weakly inflated, upper side largely green; cremaster with two pairs of thread thin spines, not set close together: Phyllonoryter insignitella

3a older larvae live free between spun leaves; mine full depth, very transparent => 4

3b larvae remain in the mine => 5

4a larva dark grey with anteriorly a white dorsal line: Aproaerema anthyllidella

4b larva brownish-yellow with red transverse bands: Syncopacma taeniolella

5a at the start of the mine an egg shell; long corridor, gradually widened to become a blotch: Trifurcula cryptella

5b no egg shell at the begin => 6

6a mine (almost) without frass => 7

6b mine contains abundant frass => 8

7a larva with chitinised head: Parectopa ononidis

7b mine contains a puparium: Hydrellia griseola

8a puparium in the mine in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

8b pupation outside the mine => 9

9a mone lower-surface for most of its length: Phytomyza brischkei

9b mine entirely upper-surface (in the end locally full depth) => 10

10a a corridor till the end; larva: cephalic skeleton with two rearwards pointing arms: Liriomyza congesta

10b final part of the corridor blotchy; cephalic skeleton with three rearwards pointing arms => 11

11a gallery weakly widening, upper-surface throughout; frass with a broad green band: Agromyza frontella

11b gallery strongly widenend in the end, here locally full depth; frass in a few large lumps: Agromyza nana

Not included in the key: Ancylis badiana; Cnephasia asseclana, incertana; Liriomyza bryoniae, trifolii; Phyllonorycter medicaginella, trifoliella; Polyommatus icarus; Syncopacma vinella.

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 23.xi.2019