Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Trifolium

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaeRamularia trifolii
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaePhacellium trifolii
stemborerUnknown code!TortricidaeGrapholita compositella
leafvagrantdoubtfulLygaeidaeHeterogaster artemisiae
leafvagrantdoubtfulMiridaeHadrodemus m-flavum
MiridaeChlamydatus saltitans
leafpredatorMiridaeGlobiceps flavomaculatus
fruitvagrantLygaeidaeLygaeus equestris
leafvagrantCoreidaeBathysolen nubilus
leafvagrantdoubtfulLygaeidaeHeterogaster canariensis
fruitvagrantCoreidaeNemocoris falleni
flowervagrantMiridaeMegalocoleus molliculus
seedsvagrantLygaeidaeBeosus maritimus
leafvagrantMiridaeCapsodes sulcatus
leafvagrantCoreidaeSyromastus rhombeus
leafvagrantCoreidaeCoriomeris denticulatus
leafvagrantCoreidaeArenocoris waltlii
leafvagrantPentatomidaeEysarcoris ventralis
leafvagrantMiridaeConostethus roseus
leafvagrantMiridaePhytocoris varipes
leafvagrantCoreidaeUlmicola spinipes
leafvagrantScutelleridaeOdontoscelis fuliginosa
fruitvagrantPyrrhocoridaePyrrhocoris apterus
leafvagrantLygaeidaeCymus melanocephalus
leafvagrantMiridaeAdelphocoris lineolatus
leafvagrantMiridaeStrongylocoris leucocephalus
leafvagrantPentatomidaeCarpocoris coreanus
leafvagrantPentatomidaeCarpocoris pudicus
leafvagrantAlydidaeAlydus calcaratus
leafvagrantMiridaeAdelphocoris seticornis
leafvagrantMiridaeAdelphocoris reichelii
leafvagrantMiridaeChlamydatus pullus
leafvagrantRhopalidaeRhopalus subrufus
flowervagrantPentatomidaePiezodorus lituratus
leafvagrantPentatomidaeDolycoris baccarum
leafvagrantPentatomidaePeribalus strictus
leafvagrantBerytidaeBerytinus hirticornis
leafvagrantMiridaeOrthocephalus saltator
leafvagrantLygaeidaeOrtholomus punctipennis
leafvagrantMiridaeCalocoris roseomaculatus
leafvagrantMiridaePlagiognathus bipunctatus
leafvagrantMiridaePlagiognathus chrysanthemi
leafvagrantLygaeidaeBeosus maritimus
leafvagrantAlydidaeMegalotomus junceus
leafvagrantRhopalidaeLiorhyssus hyalinus
leafvagrantAlydidaeCamptopus lateralis
seedsvagrantLygaeidaePeritrechus gracilicornis
leafvagrantCoreidaeCeraleptus gracilicornis
fruitvagrantLygaeidaeNysius huttoni
leafvagrantCoreidaeCeraleptus lividus
leafvagrantMiridaeLygus pratensis
leafvagrantMiridaeLygus rugulipennis
predatorMiridaeDeraeocoris punctulatus
leafvagrantMiridaeClosterotomus norwegicus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeBarynotus obscurus
leafvagrantMiridaeHalticus apterus
leafvagrantBerytidaeBerytinus minor
leafvagrantBerytidaeBerytinus montivagus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeEusomus ovulum
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeBrachysomus setiger
rootvagrantCurculionidaeStasiodis parvulus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeBarypeithes araneiformis
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeBarypeithes mollicomus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaePhyllobius glaucus
leafvagrantCoreidaeCeraleptus lividus
leafvagrantCoreidaeCoriomeris scabricornis
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus scaber
leafvagrantLycaenidaeCupido alcetas
leafvagrantNoctuidaeCaradrina selini
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus nodosus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus rugosostriatus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus dieckmanni
rootvagrantadultCurculionidaeOmiamima concinna
leafvagrantNoctuidaeMacdunnoughia confusa
rootscaleRhizoecidaeRhizoecus halophilus
rootscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus pumilus
stemscalePseudococcidaePseudococcus aridorum
leafvagrantNoctuidaeNoctua fimbriata
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeLasiocampa terreni
leafvagrantNoctuidaeChersotis rectangula
leafvagrantNoctuidaeXestia c-nigrum
leafvagrantNoctuidaeXestia xanthographa
leafvagrantNoctuidaePeridroma saucia
root collarvagrantNoctuidaeEuxoa aquilina
rootvagrantNoctuidaeAgrotis puta
rootvagrantNoctuidaeAgrotis segetum
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLacanobia aliena
leafvagrantNoctuidaeOrthosia opima
leafvagrantNoctuidaeOchropleura leucogaster
leafvagrantNoctuidaeOrthosia cruda
leafvagrantNoctuidaeNoctua comes
leafvagrantNoctuidaeOrthosia gracilis
leafvagrantdoubtfulNoctuidaeAcontia lucida
leafvagrantGeometridaeLycia graecarius
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLacanobia suasa
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAgrochola lychnidis
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeCoelositona limosus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeCoelositona limosus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona bicolor
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona cylindricollis
unknownunknownCurculionidaeSitona fairmairei
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAporophyla nigra
flowervagrantNoctuidaeXylena exsoleta
leafvagrantdoubtfulNoctuidaeAthetis lepigone
leafvagrantNoctuidaeXylena vetusta
flowerhiddenPyralidaeOncocera semirubella
leafvagrantAphididaeMyzus ornatus
flowervagrantNoctuidaeHeliothis viriplaca
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAutographa gamma
leafvagrantErebidaeEuclidia mi
leafvagrantErebidaeEuclidia glyphica
leafvagrantZygaenidaeZygaena loti
leafvagrantZygaenidaeZygaena viciae
leafvagrantGeometridaeScopula rubiginata
leafvagrantErebidaeEuplagia quadripunctaria
leafvagrantNolidaeNola aerugula
leafvagrantErebidaeArctia caja
leafvagrantErebidaePhragmatobia fuliginosa
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeMacrothylacia rubi
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeMalacosoma castrensis
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeMalacosoma alpicola
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeLasiocampa trifolii
leafvagrantErebidaeSpilosoma lubricipeda
leafvagrantGeometridaeEmaturga atomaria
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAnarta trifolii
leafvagrantGeometridaeSiona lineata
leafvagrantGeometridaeScotopteryx chenopodiata
rootborerTortricidaeAgapeta hamana
leafvagrantErebidaeDicallomera fascelina
leafvagrantGeometridaeHeliomata glarearia
leafvagrantGeometridaeIsturgia murinaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeChiasmia clathrata
leafvagrantErebidaeDiacrisia sannio
leafvagrantdoubtfulNoctuidaeCaradrina gilva
leafvagrantLycaenidaeAricia cramera
leafvagrantLycaenidaePolyommatus bellargus
leafvagrantLycaenidaeCallophrys rubi
flowervagrantLycaenidaeGlaucopsyche alexis
leafvagrantLycaenidaePolyommatus thersites
leafvagrantGeometridaeIdaea figuraria
leafvagrantNymphalidaeVanessa cardui
leafvagrantNymphalidaeEuphydryas cynthia
leafvagrantLycaenidaeCyaniris semiargus
leafvagrantLycaenidaeLampides boeticus
leafvagrantLycaenidaeZizeeria knysna
leafvagrantLycaenidaePlebejus idas
leafvagrantLycaenidaeCupido argiades
leafvagrantPieridaeColias croceus
leafvagrantPieridaeColias phicomone
leafvagrantPieridaeColias hyale
leafvagrantPieridaeLeptidea sinapis
leafvagrantZygaenidaeZygaena lonicerae
rootvagrantMicropezidaeMicropeza corrigiolata
fruitborerEurytomidaeBruchophagus gibbus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeAphrodes bicinctus
leafhiddenTortricidaeCapricornia boisduvaliana
leafvagrantdoubtfulCicadellidaeStictocoris picturatus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeAgallia brachyptera
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEuscelis incisus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeMegophthalmus scanicus
leafvagrantMembracidaeGargara genistae
leafvagrantCicadellidaeAnaceratagallia ribauti
leafvagrantCicadellidaeDryodurgades dlabolai
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEuscelidius variegatus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeHandianus flavovarius
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEuscelis lineolatus
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia vasiljevi
unknownunknownCurculionidaeTychius cupriferoides
unknownunknownCurculionidaeTychius grandicollis
unknownunknownCurculionidaeTychius longicollis
rootvagrantCurculionidaeStomodes gyrosicollis
leafvagrantCurculionidaeDonus zoilus
unknownunknownCurculionidaeHypera fornicata
unknownunknownCurculionidaeTychius ochraceus
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia praetiosa
flowerhiddenPhlaeothripidaeHaplothrips niger
fruitborerlarvadoubtfulApionidaeEutrichapion ervi
unknownunknownThripidaeThrips pelikani
flowerhiddenAeolothripidaeMelanthrips pallidior
flowerhiddenThripidaeSericothrips bicornis
flowerborerNitidulidaeFabogethes nigrescens
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeGonioctena fornicata
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius fulvicornis
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius murinus
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius annulicornis
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius sericatus
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius picipes
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius pygmaeus
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius dispar
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius varius
leafhiddenCrambidaeLoxostege sticticalis
unknownunknownApionidaeProtapion truquii
leafvagrantCurculionidaeHypera miles
leafvagrantCurculionidaeHypera melancholica
leafvagrantCurculionidaeHypera postica
leafvagrantCurculionidaeHypera venusta
unknownunknowndoubtfulApionidaeProtapion dentipes
flowerhiddenCurculionidaeHypera meles
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo notha
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura myosotidis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo arcuata
leafhiddenTortricidaeCelypha cespitana
rootscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus alibotush
leafhiddenGelechiidaeDichomeris limosellus
leafhiddenCrambidaeNomophila noctuella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeChionodes lugubrella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeDichomeris acuminatus
leafhiddenGelechiidaeMirificarma eburnella
flowerhiddenThripidaeNeohydatothrips gracilicornis
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips atratus
stemvagrantlarvaMembracidaeStictocephala bisonia
leafhiddendoubtfulTortricidaeChoristoneura diversana
leafhiddenTortricidaeChoristoneura lafauryana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips podana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis dumetana
flowerhiddenThripidaeKakothrips robustus
flowerhiddenThripidaeOdontothrips phaleratus
flowerhiddenThripidaeOdontothrips loti
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella intonsa
leaf budhiddendoubtfulTortricidaeCnephasia conspersana
leafhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia incertana
leafhiddenTortricidaePhiledonides lunana
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
leafhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
fruitborerdoubtfulTortricidaeGrapholita lunulana
fruitborerElachistidaeHeinemannia laspeyrella
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona verecundus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona humeralis
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona lividipes
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona lateralis
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona sulcifrons
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona cinnamomeus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona puncticollis
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona ambiguus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona lineellus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona macularius
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona tenuis
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona lepidus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona lineatus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona hispidulus
fruitborerlarvaCurculionidaeTychius rufipennis
fruitborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion angusticolle
fruitborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion ruficrus
unknownborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion schoenherri
flowerborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion dissimile
unknownborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion difforme
flowerborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion fulvipes
stemborerlarvaApionidaeCatapion meieri
fruitborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion gracilipes
flowerborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion interjectum
fruitborerlarvadoubtfulApionidaeEutrichapion viciae
stemborerlarvaApionidaeIschnopterapion virens
stemborerlarvaApionidaeSynapion ebeninum
flowerborerApionidaeProtapion nigritarse
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia horticola
rootborerSesiidaeBembecia blanka
rootborerSesiidaeBembecia fokidensis
flowergallApionidaeProtapion assimile
flowerborerApionidaeProtapion trifolii
rootborerCurculionidaeHylastinus obscurus
flowergallApionidaeProtapion apricans
flowerborerApionidaeProtapion laevicolle
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora paramayrella
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora mayrella
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora alcyonipennella
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora deauratella
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora frischella
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae fabae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae solanella
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis nasturtii
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMyzus persicae
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius cuprifer
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius curtirostris
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius decretus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius junceus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius lineatulus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius picirostris
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius polylineatus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius pumilus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius pusillus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius sharpi
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius stephensi
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius tibialis
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura gentneri
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura leguminicola
flowergallCecidomyiidaeHadrobremia longiventris
flowergallEriophyidaeAceria ononidistrifolii
flowergallHelotialesBotrytis anthophila
leaf budgallApionidaeProtapion filirostre
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura axillaris
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe pisi var. pisi
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe trifoliorum
leafdownErysiphalesLeveillula papilionacearum
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora trifolii-arvensis
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora trifolii-hybridi
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora trifoliorum
leafleaf spotCapnodialesCymadothea trifolii
leafleaf spotHelotialesPseudopeziza trifolii
leafgallCecidomyiidaeTricholaba trifolii
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura trifolii
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bryoniae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza congesta
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza trifolii
leafminerrarelyAgromyzidaeAgromyza frontella
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza nana
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza brischkei
leafminerEphydridaeHydrellia griseola
leafminerGelechiidaeSyncopacma taeniolella
leafminerGelechiidaeSyncopacma vinella
leafminerGelechiidaeAproaerema anthyllidella
leafminerGracillariidaeParectopa ononidis
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter insignitella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter medicaginella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter nigrescentella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter trifoliella
leafminerLycaenidaePolyommatus icarus
leafminerPsychidaeApterona helicoidella
leafminerTortricidaeAncylis badiana
leafpustuleBlastocladialesPhysoderma trifolii
leafpustuleBlastocladialesPhysoderma vagans
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces fallens
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii-repentis
leafpustuleaecia teliaPuccinialesUromyces minor
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces jaapianus
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces striatus
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii-purpurei
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces flectens
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculops eximius
stemborerCurculionidaeHypera nigrirostris
stemgallApionidaeCatapion seniculus
stemgallApionidaeEutrichapion viciae
stemgallApionidaeProtapion varipes
root collargallApionidaeCatapion curtisii
root collargallApionidaeCatapion pubescens
rootgallHeteroderidaeHeterodera trifolii
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne hapla
rootgallRhizobialesRhizobium leguminosarum
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeSmynthurodes betae
predatorCecidomyiidaeLestodiplosis pallidicornis
predatorCecidomyiidaeLestodiplosis trifolii
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
root collarvagrantAphididaeSubacyrthosiphon cryptobium
leafvagrantrarelyAphididaeTherioaphis riehmi
leafvagrantAphididaeTherioaphis luteola
leafvagrantAphididaeTherioaphis trifolii
leafvagrantAphididaeTherioaphis subalba
leafvagrantrarelyAphididaeTherioaphis brachytricha
leafleaf spotPleosporalesStemphylium sarciniforme
leafgallAphididaeMegoura viciae
stemvagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon kondoi
root collarvagrantAphididaeAphis coronillae
stemvagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon pisum
systemicvagrantmainAphididaeNearctaphis bakeri

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 30.vii.2022