Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Trifolium arvense

hare’s-foot clover

synonym: Trifolium gracile

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
fruitvagrantCoreidaeNemocoris falleni
leafvagrantScutelleridaeOdontoscelis fuliginosa
leafvagrantMiridaeCalocoris roseomaculatus
leafvagrantCoreidaeCeraleptus lividus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeEusomus ovulum
leafvagrantCoreidaeCoriomeris scabricornis
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeMacrothylacia rubi
leafminerLycaenidaePolyommatus icarus
leafvagrantPieridaeLeptidea sinapis
leafvagrantPieridaeColias hyale
leafvagrantCicadellidaeAnaceratagallia ribauti
leafvagrantCicadellidaeMegophthalmus scanicus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeAphrodes bicinctus
leafvagrantCurculionidaeHypera venusta
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius picirostris
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius stephensi
flowerhiddenCurculionidaeHypera meles
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius pygmaeus
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella intonsa
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona macularius
fruitborerlarvaCurculionidaeTychius rufipennis
unknownborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion schoenherri
flowerborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion dissimile
unknownborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion difforme
stemborerlarvaApionidaeIschnopterapion virens
flowergallApionidaeProtapion assimile
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura trifolii
stemgallApionidaeProtapion varipes
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius cuprifer
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius junceus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius polylineatus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius pumilus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius tibialis
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura leguminicola
flowergallEriophyidaeAceria ononidistrifolii
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe trifoliorum
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora trifolii-arvensis
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza congesta
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces fallens
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces striatus
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces flectens
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii
leafvagrantAphididaeTherioaphis trifolii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 22.iv.2022