Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Trifolium campestre

hop trefoil

synonym: Chrysaspis campestris; Trifolium pseudo-procumbens, pseudoprocumbens

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantCoreidaeCeraleptus lividus
leafvagrantCoreidaeCeraleptus gracilicornis
leafvagrantZygaenidaeZygaena viciae
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeMalacosoma castrensis
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeMalacosoma alpicola
leafvagrantLycaenidaePlebejus idas
fruitborerEurytomidaeBruchophagus gibbus
leafvagrantMembracidaeGargara genistae
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius stephensi
flowergallApionidaeProtapion apricans
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeGonioctena fornicata
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella intonsa
flowerborerApionidaeProtapion nigritarse
unknownborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion schoenherri
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius junceus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius pusillus
leaf budgallApionidaeProtapion filirostre
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe trifoliorum
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora trifolii-arvensis
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura trifolii
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza nana
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza congesta
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza brischkei
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter medicaginella
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces fallens
leafpustuleaecia teliaPuccinialesUromyces minor
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces jaapianus
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces striatus
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces flectens
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii
root collargallApionidaeCatapion pubescens
stemvagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon pisum
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 25.i.2022