Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Trifolium fragiferum

strawberry clover

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaePolythrincium trifolii
leafvagrantPieridaeColias hyale
flowerborerdoubtfulApionidaeProtapion nigritarse
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius pygmaeus
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius varius
stemborerlarvaApionidaeIschnopterapion virens
rootborerSesiidaeBembecia fokidensis
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius lineatulus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius pusillus
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura gentneri
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura axillaris
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe trifoliorum
leafleaf spotHelotialesPseudopeziza trifolii
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura trifolii
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza nana
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza congesta
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza brischkei
leafpustuleBlastocladialesPhysoderma vagans
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces fallens
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii-repentis
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces flectens
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii
stemborerCurculionidaeHypera nigrirostris
stemgallApionidaeCatapion seniculus
root collargallApionidaeCatapion curtisii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 9.x.2022