Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Trifolium hybridum

alsike clover

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantErebidaeEuclidia glyphica
leafvagrantCicadellidaeAphrodes bicinctus
unknownunknownCurculionidaeTychius ochraceus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius stephensi
flowerborerdoubtfulApionidaeProtapion nigritarse
stemborerlarvaApionidaeIschnopterapion virens
flowerhiddenPhlaeothripidaeHaplothrips niger
root collargallApionidaeCatapion pubescens
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeGonioctena fornicata
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius sericatus
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius varius
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona sulcifrons
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona cinnamomeus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona puncticollis
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona lepidus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona lineellus
flowerborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion fulvipes
stemborerlarvaApionidaeCatapion meieri
stemgallApionidaeCatapion seniculus
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius junceus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius picirostris
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura gentneri
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura leguminicola
flowergallApionidaeProtapion assimile
flowergallEriophyidaeAceria ononidistrifolii
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe trifoliorum
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora trifolii-hybridi
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza nana
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza bryoniae
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza congesta
leafpustuleBlastocladialesPhysoderma trifolii
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces fallens
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii-repentis
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces flectens
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii
stemborerCurculionidaeHypera nigrirostris
rootborerCurculionidaeHylastinus obscurus
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne hapla
root collarvagrantAphididaeAphis coronillae
stemvagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon pisum
leafgallAphididaeMegoura viciae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 21.vii.2021