Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Trifolium medium

zigzag clover

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafhiddenGelechiidaeDichomeris limosellus
leafvagrantZygaenidaeZygaena viciae
leafvagrantErebidaeEuclidia glyphica
leafvagrantLycaenidaeCupido argiades
leafvagrantPieridaeColias hyale
leafvagrantPieridaeColias croceus
leafvagrantZygaenidaeZygaena lonicerae
leafvagrantCicadellidaeDryodurgades dlabolai
unknownunknownCurculionidaeHypera fornicata
flowergallApionidaeProtapion apricans
stemborerlarvaApionidaeIschnopterapion virens
flowerborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion fulvipes
root collargallApionidaeCatapion pubescens
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius varius
leafminerGelechiidaeSyncopacma taeniolella
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona sulcifrons
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona puncticollis
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona ambiguus
flowerborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion interjectum
fruitborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion gracilipes
stemborerlarvaApionidaeSynapion ebeninum
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura trifolii
flowergallEriophyidaeAceria ononidistrifolii
rootborerSesiidaeBembecia fokidensis
flowerborerApionidaeProtapion trifolii
flowergallApionidaeProtapion assimile
rootborerCurculionidaeHylastinus obscurus
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora deauratella
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius lineatulus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius polylineatus
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura leguminicola
flowergallCecidomyiidaeHadrobremia longiventris
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura axillaris
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe pisi var. pisi
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe trifoliorum
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora trifoliorum
leafleaf spotHelotialesPseudopeziza trifolii
leafgallCecidomyiidaeTricholaba trifolii
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza nana
leafminerGracillariidaeParectopa ononidis
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter insignitella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter nigrescentella
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces fallens
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii-repentis
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculops eximius
stemborerCurculionidaeHypera nigrirostris
stemgallApionidaeCatapion seniculus
leafvagrantAphididaeTherioaphis subalba


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 24.iii.2022