zigzag clover

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf miner Gelechiidae Syncopacma taeniolella
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona sulcifrons
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona puncticollis
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Sitona ambiguus
flower borer larva Apionidae Protapion interjectum
fruit borer larva Apionidae Protapion gracilipes
stem borer larva Apionidae Synapion ebeninum
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura trifolii
flower gall Eriophyidae Aceria ononidistrifolii
root borer Sesiidae Bembecia fokidensis
flower borer Apionidae Protapion trifolii
flower gall Apionidae Protapion assimile
flower gall doubtful Apionidae Protapion apricans
root borer Curculionidae Hylastinus obscurus
fruit vagrant Coleophoridae Coleophora deauratella
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
fruit gall Curculionidae Tychius lineatulus
fruit gall Curculionidae Tychius polylineatus
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura leguminicola
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Hadrobremia longiventris
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura axillaris
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe pisi var. pisi
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe trifoliorum
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora trifoliorum
leaf leaf spot Helotiales Pseudopeziza trifolii
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Tricholaba trifolii
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza nana
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parectopa ononidis
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter insignitella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter nigrescentella
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces fallens
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces trifolii-repentis
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculops eximius
stem borer Curculionidae Hypera nigrirostris
stem gall Apionidae Catapion seniculus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Therioaphis subalba


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 29.i.2020