Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Trifolium montanum

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantNoctuidaeNoctua comes
leafvagrantNoctuidaeOrthosia gracilis
leafvagrantZygaenidaeZygaena lonicerae
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeLasiocampa trifolii
leafminerLycaenidaePolyommatus icarus
rootborerBuprestidaeSphenoptera antiqua
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius picirostris
flowerborerApionidaeProtapion trifolii
stemborerlarvaApionidaeIschnopterapion virens
flowergallApionidaeProtapion assimile
fruitborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion ruficrus
stemgallApionidaeCatapion seniculus
flowerborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion interjectum
stemborerlarvaApionidaeSynapion ebeninum
stemgallApionidaeProtapion varipes
flowergallApionidaeProtapion apricans
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius lineatulus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius polylineatus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius pusillus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius sharpi
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe trifoliorum
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora trifoliorum
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza nana
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza congesta
leafminerGracillariidaeParectopa ononidis
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter insignitella
leafpustuleBlastocladialesPhysoderma trifolii
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii-repentis
leafpustuleaecia teliaPuccinialesUromyces minor
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces flectens
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 23.ix.2021