Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Trifolium pratense

red clover

synonym: Trifolium bracteatum

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius picirostris
leafvagrantCurculionidaeDonus zoilus
unknownunknownCurculionidaeHypera fornicata
flowerhiddenCurculionidaeHypera meles
flowerborerdoubtfulApionidaeProtapion nigritarse
fruitborerlarvadoubtfulApionidaeEutrichapion viciae
unknownborerlarvaApionidaeProtapion difforme
flowerhiddenPhlaeothripidaeHaplothrips niger
root collargallApionidaeCatapion pubescens
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeGonioctena fornicata
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius pygmaeus
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius sericatus
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius varius
fruitborerChrysomelidaeBruchidius dispar
leafhiddenCrambidaeLoxostege sticticalis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo notha
unknownunknowndoubtfulApionidaeProtapion dentipes
leafhiddenGelechiidaeDichomeris limosellus
leafhiddenCrambidaeNomophila noctuella
leafminerGelechiidaeSyncopacma taeniolella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeDichomeris acuminatus
unknownunknownGelechiidaeMirificarma flavella
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips atratus
stemvagrantlarvaMembracidaeStictocephala bisonia
flowerhiddenThripidaeKakothrips robustus
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella intonsa
leaf budhiddendoubtfulTortricidaeCnephasia conspersana
leafhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia incertana
leafhiddenTortricidaePhiledonides lunana
stemborerspring generationTortricidaeGrapholita compositella
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona macularius
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona sulcifrons
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona cinnamomeus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona puncticollis
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona lepidus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona ambiguus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona lineellus
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeSitona hispidulus
flowerborerlarvadoubtfulApionidaeProtapion dissimile
stemborerlarvaApionidaeIschnopterapion virens
stemgallApionidaeCatapion seniculus
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza brischkei
leafminerAgromyzidaeChromatomyia horticola
flowergallEriophyidaeAceria ononidistrifolii
stemgallApionidaeProtapion varipes
flowerborermainApionidaeProtapion trifolii
flowergallApionidaeProtapion assimile
flowergallApionidaeProtapion apricans
fruitvagrantColeophoridaeColeophora deauratella
leafvagrantdoubtfulAphididaeTherioaphis brachytricha
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius cuprifer
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius junceus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius lineatulus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius polylineatus
fruitgallCurculionidaeTychius stephensi
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura gentneri
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura leguminicola
flowergallHelotialesBotrytis anthophila
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe pisi var. pisi
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe trifoliorum
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora trifolii-hybridi
leafleaf spotCapnodialesCymadothea trifolii
leafleaf spotHelotialesPseudopeziza trifolii
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura trifolii
leafgallCecidomyiidaeTricholaba trifolii
leafminerrarelyAgromyzidaeAgromyza frontella
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza nana
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza congesta
leafminerGelechiidaeAproaerema anthyllidella
leafminerGelechiidaeSyncopacma vinella
leafminerGracillariidaeParectopa ononidis
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter insignitella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter nigrescentella
leafpustuleBlastocladialesPhysoderma trifolii
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces fallens
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesUromyces trifolii-repentis
leafpustuleaecia teliaPuccinialesUromyces minor
stemvagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon pisum
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculops eximius
stemborerCurculionidaeHypera nigrirostris
rootborerCurculionidaeHylastinus obscurus
leafvagrantAphididaeTherioaphis luteola
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
leafvagrantAphididaeTherioaphis trifolii
leafvagrantrarelyAphididaeTherioaphis brachytricha
leafleaf spotPleosporalesStemphylium sarciniforme
root collarvagrantAphididaeAphis coronillae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi
systemicvagrantmainAphididaeNearctaphis bakeri

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 3.x.2020