Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Betula humilis

synonym: Betula kamtschatica, oycowiensis Besser, socolowii

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotDothideomycetesAsteromella maculiformis
predatorMycosphaerellaceaeRamularia uredinis
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAcronicta auricoma
leafvagrantdoubtfulLasiocampidaeEriogaster arbusculae
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeLasiocampa quercus
leafvagrantTetranychidaeTetranychus urticae
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeAltica aenescens
leafvagrantArgidaeArge dimidiata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora testacea
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus longisetosus
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe ornata
leafdownErysiphalesPhyllactinia betulae
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus rudis
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes rusci
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania sparrmannella
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix betulae
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix traugotti
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter anderidae
leafminerIncurvariidaePhylloporia bistrigella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia occultella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella betulicola
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella lapponica
leafminerTenthredinidaeFenusella nana
leafminerTenthredinidaeHeterarthrus nemoratus
leafminerTenthredinidaeScolioneura betuleti
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMelampsoridium betulinum
stemgallSantalaceaeViscum album
leafvagrantAphididaeBetulaphis brevipilosa
leafvagrantAphididaeBetulaphis quadrituberculata
leafvagrantAphididaeCalaphis flava


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 2.viii.2022