Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Betula humilis

synonym: Betula kamtschatica, oycowiensis Besser, socolowii

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Dothideomycetes Asteromella maculiformis
predator Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia uredinis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta auricoma
leaf vagrant doubtful Lasiocampidae Eriogaster arbusculae
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Lasiocampa quercus
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica aenescens
leaf vagrant Argidae Arge dimidiata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora testacea
leaf gall Eriophyidae Acalitus longisetosus
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe ornata
leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia betulae
leaf gall Eriophyidae Acalitus rudis
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes rusci
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Eriocrania sparrmannella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix betulae
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix traugotti
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter anderidae
leaf miner Incurvariidae Phylloporia bistrigella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia occultella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella betulicola
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella lapponica
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenusella nana
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Heterarthrus nemoratus
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Scolioneura betuleti
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsoridium betulinum
stem gall Santalaceae Viscum album
leaf vagrant Aphididae Betulaphis brevipilosa
leaf vagrant Aphididae Betulaphis quadrituberculata
leaf vagrant Aphididae Calaphis flava


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 2.viii.2022