Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Betula nana

dwarf birch

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips vulgatissimus
stem scale Coccidae Pulvinaria vitis
leaf hidden Yponomeutidae Paraswammerdamia lapponica
leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae Venturia glacialis
leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae Venturia ditricha
leaf vagrant Miridae Globiceps juniperi
leaf vagrant Miridae Globiceps salicicola
leaf vagrant Miridae Psallus graminicola
leaf hidden younger larva Hesperiidae Pyrgus centaureae
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lycia lapponaria
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Coenophila subrosea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lasionycta skraelingia
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura brevivalvis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Syngrapha interrogationis
leaf vagrant Geometridae Glacies coracina
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Trichiura crataegi
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Eriogaster arbusculae
leaf vagrant Geometridae Macaria fusca
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus betuleti
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Chionodes viduella
leaf vagrant adult Cixiidae Cixius similis
leaf vagrant adult Cicadellidae Colladonus torneellus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Kybos lindbergi
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips major
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura betulae
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Pseudotelphusa paripunctella
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora melanocarpa
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora alpestris
leaf vagrant doubtful Tenthredinidae Pristiphora pseudocoactula
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora borea
leaf miner younger larva Adelidae Nemophora bellela
flower borer larva Curculionidae Coeliodinus phrymos
flower borer larva Curculionidae Coeliodinus nigritarsis
stem vagrant Psyllidae Psylla betulaenanae
leaf gall Aphididae Calaphis betulicola
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Semudobia betulae
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe ornata
leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia betulae
leaf gall Aphididae Hamamelistes betulinus
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Massalongia bachmaieri
leaf gall Eriophyidae Acalitus longisetosus
leaf gall Eriophyidae Acalitus rudis
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria fennica
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria vinosa
leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina bacteriosperma
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix demaryella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora milvipennis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora orbitella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora siccifolia
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella
leaf miner Curculionidae Anoplus plantaris
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes jota
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes rusci
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes calceatus
leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus pulicarius
leaf miner Curculionidae Tachyerges stigma
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix betulae
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix polygrammella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter anderidae
leaf miner Incurvariidae Phylloporia bistrigella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia minimella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia occultella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella betulicola
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella confusella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella continuella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella lapponica
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella luteella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella tristis
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Atemelia torquatella
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Swammerdamia passerella
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsoridium betulinum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Hormaphis betulae
stem gall Santalaceae Viscum album
stem vagrant Aphididae Symydobius oblongus
stem witches’ broom Taphrinales Taphrina betulina
stem witches’ broom Taphrinales Taphrina nana
stem vagrant Aphididae Symydobius nanae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Callipterinella calliptera
leaf vagrant Aphididae Betulaphis pelei
leaf vagrant Aphididae Calaphis flava
leaf vagrant Aphididae Calaphis arctica
leaf vagrant Aphididae Betulaphis quadrituberculata


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 2.x.2023