Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Betula nana

dwarf birch

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
stemborerBuprestidaeAgrilus betuleti
leafhiddenGelechiidaeChionodes viduella
leafvagrantadultCixiidaeCixius similis
leafvagrantadultCicadellidaeColladonus torneellus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeKybos lindbergi
leafvagrantThripidaeThrips major
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura betulae
leafhiddenGelechiidaePseudotelphusa paripunctella
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora melanocarpa
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora alpestris
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaePristiphora pseudocoactula
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora borea
leafmineryounger larvaAdelidaeNemophora bellela
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeCoeliodinus phrymos
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeCoeliodinus nigritarsis
stemvagrantPsyllidaePsylla betulaenanae
leafgallAphididaeCalaphis betulicola
fruitgallCecidomyiidaeSemudobia betulae
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe ornata
leafdownErysiphalesPhyllactinia betulae
leafgallAphididaeHamamelistes betulinus
leafgallCecidomyiidaeMassalongia bachmaieri
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus longisetosus
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus rudis
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria fennica
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria vinosa
leafgallTaphrinalesTaphrina bacteriosperma
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix demaryella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora milvipennis
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora orbitella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora siccifolia
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora serratella
leafminerCurculionidaeAnoplus plantaris
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes jota
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes rusci
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes calceatus
leafminerCurculionidaeRhamphus pulicarius
leafminerCurculionidaeTachyerges stigma
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix betulae
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix polygrammella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter anderidae
leafminerIncurvariidaePhylloporia bistrigella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia minimella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia occultella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella betulicola
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella confusella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella continuella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella lapponica
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella luteella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella tristis
leafminerYponomeutidaeAtemelia torquatella
leafminerYponomeutidaeSwammerdamia passerella
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMelampsoridium betulinum
leafvagrantAphididaeHormaphis betulae
stemgallSantalaceaeViscum album
stemvagrantAphididaeSymydobius oblongus
stemwitches’ broomTaphrinalesTaphrina betulina
stemwitches’ broomTaphrinalesTaphrina nana
stemvagrantAphididaeSymydobius nanae
leafvagrantAphididaeCallipterinella calliptera
leafvagrantAphididaeBetulaphis pelei
leafvagrantAphididaeCalaphis flava
leafvagrantAphididaeCalaphis arctica
leafvagrantAphididaeBetulaphis quadrituberculata


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 8.iii.2021