silver birch

synonym: Betula aetnensis, glutinosa Wallroth, oycowiensis Rchb., verrucosa

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris logiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris lipsiana
leaf hidden doubtful Tortricidae Acleris notana
inquiline Eriophyidae Eriophyes betulinus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Coeliodinus phrymos
flower borer larva Curculionidae Coeliodinus nigritarsis
flower borer larva Curculionidae Curculio rubidus
leaf gall larva Rhynchitidae Byctiscus betulae
leaf gall larva main Rhynchitidae Deporaus betulae
stem gall Prodoxidae Lampronia fuscatella
leaf gall larva Attelabidae Apoderus coryli
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora testacea
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
stem gall Tortricidae Epinotia tetraquetrana
stem borer main Sesiidae Synanthedon culiciformis
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon spuleri
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon scoliaeformis
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon spheciformis
stem borer Psilidae Chyliza leptogaster
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Eriocrania cicatricella
stem vagrant Psyllidae Chamaepsylla hartigii
stem vagrant Psyllidae Psylla betulae
fruit gall main Cecidomyiidae Semudobia betulae
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Semudobia tarda
flower borer Tortricidae Epinotia bilunana
flower gall Apionidae Betulapion simile
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura fastidiosa
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Semudobia skuhravae
flower gall Tortricidae Cochylis nana
leaf bud gall Eriophyidae Acalitus calycophthirus
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe ornata
leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia betulae
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera erineophila
leaf leaf spot Venturiales Fusicladium scribnerianum
leaf gall Aphididae Calaphis betulicola
leaf gall Aphididae Hamamelistes betulinus
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Anisostephus betulinus
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Massalongia betulifolia
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Massalongia rubra
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Resseliella betulicola
leaf gall Eriophyidae Acalitus longisetosus
leaf gall Eriophyidae Acalitus rudis
leaf gall Eriophyidae Cecidophyopsis betulae
leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina bacteriosperma
leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina betulae
leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina carnea
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza alnibetulae
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix demaryella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora betulella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora binderella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora fuscocuprella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora milvipennis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora orbitella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella
leaf miner Curculionidae Anoplus plantaris
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes jota
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes rusci
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes calceatus
leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus pulicarius
leaf miner Curculionidae Tachyerges stigma
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Eriocrania salopiella
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Eriocrania sangii
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Eriocrania semipurpurella
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Eriocrania sparrmannella
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Heringocrania unimaculella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Caloptilia betulicola
leaf miner main Gracillariidae Caloptilia populetorum
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix betulae
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter cavella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter corylifoliella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella
leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria pectinea
leaf miner Incurvariidae Phylloporia bistrigella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera malifoliella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia prunifoliella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia minimella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia occultella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella betulicola
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella confusella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella continuella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella lapponica
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella luteella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella naturnella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella sakhalinella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenusa pumila
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenusella nana
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Heterarthrus nemoratus
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Profenusa thomsoni
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Scolioneura betuleti
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Scolioneura vicina
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Argyresthia goedartella
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Atemelia torquatella
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Swammerdamia caesiella
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsoridium betulinum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Euceraphis betulae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Acaphylla acromia
stem gall Rhizobiales Agrobacterium tumefaciens
stem gall Santalaceae Viscum album
stem vagrant Aphididae Glyphina betulae
stem vagrant Aphididae Symydobius oblongus
stem vagrant rarely Aphididae Stomaphis quercus
stem witches’ broom Taphrinales Taphrina betulina
stem witches’ broom Taphrinales Taphrina nana
leaf oviposition scar Tenthredinidae Hemichroa crocea
leaf vagrant Aphididae Betulaphis quadrituberculata
leaf vagrant main Aphididae Betulaphis brevipilosa
leaf vagrant Aphididae Callipterinella tuberculata
leaf vagrant Aphididae Monaphis antennata
stem vagrant Aphididae Clethrobius comes
leaf vagrant Aphididae Callipterinella calliptera
flower vagrant Aphididae Callipterinella minutissima
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni
stem scale rarely Coccidae Palaeolecanium bituberculatum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Calaphis flava
stem scale Coccidae Pulvinaria vitis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Euceraphis punctipennis
stem vagrant rarely Aphididae Glyphina pseudoschrankiana
leaf vagrant Aphididae Hormaphis betulae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 2.xi.2019