Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Betula pendula

silver birch

synonym: Betula aetnensis, glutinosa Wallroth, oycowiensis Rchb., verrucosa

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
rootvagrantCurculionidaeStrophosoma melanogrammum
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis carbonaria
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura vicina
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura brevivalvis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura umbrata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo atra
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura ampla
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura berolinensis
leafvagrantArgidaeArge dimidiata
leafvagrantArgidaeArge fuscipes
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeCaliroa annulipes
leafvagrantCimbicidaeTrichiosoma vitellina
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura viridis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura connecta
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaeAllantus cingillum
leafvagrantArgidaeArge pullata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura poecilonota
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeRhogogaster punctulata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeRhogogaster scalaris
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEmpria candidata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura dispar
leafvagrantArgidaeArge metallica
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeNematus latipes
stemborerXiphydryiidaeXiphydria longicollis
leafhiddenPamphilidaePamphilius varius
leafvagrantCimbicidaeTrichiosoma lucorum
leafvagrantArgidaeArge ustulata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeNematus septentrionalis
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaeEuura nigricornis
stemborermainXiphydryiidaeXiphydria camelus
leafhiddenTortricidaeApotomis sororculana
leafhiddenTortricidaeApotomis turbidana
leafhiddenPamphilidaePamphilius pallipes
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePlatycampus luridiventris
leafvagrantCimbicidaeCimbex femoratus
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDiurnea fagella
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDiurnea lipsiella
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis upupana
leafhiddenTortricidaeOrthotaenia undulana
leafhiddenGelechiidaeDichomeris ustalella
leafhiddenChoreutidaeChoreutis diana
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDasystoma salicella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeCarpatolechia proximella
leafhiddenTortricidaeApotomis betuletana
leafhiddenElachistidaeSemioscopis avellanella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeTeleiodes wagae
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis tineana
leafhiddenTortricidaeLobesia reliquana
leafhiddenGelechiidaeAnacampsis blattariella
leafhiddenmainTortricidaeEpinotia solandriana
flowerborerTortricidaeEpinotia demarniana
leafhiddenTortricidaeEpinotia trigonella
leafhiddenElachistidaeExaeretia ciniflonella
leafhiddenTortricidaeSpilonota ocellana
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeDineura virididorsata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora melanocarpa
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips rosana
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora alpestris
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora pseudocoactula
leafhiddenTortricidaeChoristoneura diversana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis cerasana
leafvagrantlarvaTenthredinidaeHemichroa crocea
leafvagrantlarvaTenthredinidaeHemichroa australis
leafoviposition scareggTenthredinidaeHemichroa crocea
leafoviposition scareggTenthredinidaeHemichroa australis
stemscaleDiaspididaeDiaspidiotus ostreaeformis
leafhiddenTortricidaeAdoxophyes orana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris logiana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris lipsiana
leafhiddendoubtfulTortricidaeAcleris notana
inquilineEriophyidaeEriophyes betulinus
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeCoeliodinus phrymos
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeCoeliodinus nigritarsis
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeCurculio rubidus
leafgalllarvaRhynchitidaeByctiscus betulae
leafgalllarvamainRhynchitidaeDeporaus betulae
stemgallProdoxidaeLampronia fuscatella
leafgalllarvaAttelabidaeApoderus coryli
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora testacea
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes ulmi
stemgallTortricidaeEpinotia tetraquetrana
stemborermainSesiidaeSynanthedon culiciformis
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon spuleri
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon scoliaeformis
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon spheciformis
stemborerPsilidaeChyliza leptogaster
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania cicatricella
stemvagrantPsyllidaeChamaepsylla hartigii
stemvagrantPsyllidaePsylla betulae
fruitgallmainCecidomyiidaeSemudobia betulae
fruitgallCecidomyiidaeSemudobia tarda
flowerborerTortricidaeEpinotia bilunana
flowergallApionidaeBetulapion simile
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura fastidiosa
flowergallCecidomyiidaeSemudobia skuhravae
flowergallTortricidaeCochylis nana
leaf budgallEriophyidaeAcalitus calycophthirus
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe ornata
leafdownErysiphalesPhyllactinia betulae
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera erineophila
leafleaf spotVenturialesFusicladium scribnerianum
leafgallAphididaeCalaphis betulicola
leafgallAphididaeHamamelistes betulinus
leafgallCecidomyiidaeAnisostephus betulinus
leafgallCecidomyiidaeMassalongia betulifolia
leafgallCecidomyiidaeMassalongia rubra
leafgallCecidomyiidaeResseliella betulicola
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus longisetosus
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus rudis
leafgallEriophyidaeCecidophyopsis betulae
leafgallTaphrinalesTaphrina bacteriosperma
leafgallTaphrinalesTaphrina betulae
leafgallTaphrinalesTaphrina carnea
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza alnibetulae
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix demaryella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora betulella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora binderella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora fuscocuprella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora milvipennis
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora orbitella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora serratella
leafminerCurculionidaeAnoplus plantaris
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes jota
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes rusci
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes calceatus
leafminerCurculionidaeRhamphus pulicarius
leafminerCurculionidaeTachyerges stigma
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania salopiella
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania sangii
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania semipurpurella
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania sparrmannella
leafminerEriocraniidaeHeringocrania unimaculella
leafminerGracillariidaeCaloptilia betulicola
leafminermainGracillariidaeCaloptilia populetorum
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix betulae
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter cavella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter corylifoliella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter ulmifoliella
leafminerIncurvariidaeIncurvaria pectinea
leafminerIncurvariidaePhylloporia bistrigella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLeucoptera malifoliella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLyonetia clerkella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLyonetia prunifoliella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia minimella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia occultella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella betulicola
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella confusella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella continuella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella lapponica
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella luteella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella naturnella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella sakhalinella
leafminerPsychidaeApterona helicoidella
leafminerTenthredinidaeFenusa pumila
leafminerTenthredinidaeFenusella nana
leafminerTenthredinidaeHeterarthrus nemoratus
leafminerTenthredinidaeProfenusa thomsoni
leafminerTenthredinidaeScolioneura betuleti
leafminerTenthredinidaeScolioneura vicina
leafminerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia goedartella
leafminerYponomeutidaeAtemelia torquatella
leafminerYponomeutidaeSwammerdamia caesiella
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMelampsoridium betulinum
leafvagrantAphididaeEuceraphis betulae
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAcaphylla acromia
stemgallRhizobialesAgrobacterium tumefaciens
stemgallSantalaceaeViscum album
stemvagrantAphididaeGlyphina betulae
stemvagrantAphididaeSymydobius oblongus
stemvagrantrarelyAphididaeStomaphis quercus
stemwitches’ broomTaphrinalesTaphrina betulina
stemwitches’ broomTaphrinalesTaphrina nana
leafoviposition scarTenthredinidaeHemichroa crocea
leafvagrantAphididaeBetulaphis quadrituberculata
leafvagrantmainAphididaeBetulaphis brevipilosa
leafvagrantAphididaeCallipterinella tuberculata
leafvagrantAphididaeMonaphis antennata
stemvagrantAphididaeClethrobius comes
leafvagrantAphididaeCallipterinella calliptera
flowervagrantAphididaeCallipterinella minutissima
stemscaleCoccidaeParthenolecanium corni
stemscalerarelyCoccidaePalaeolecanium bituberculatum
leafvagrantAphididaeCalaphis flava
stemscaleCoccidaePulvinaria vitis
leafvagrantAphididaeEuceraphis punctipennis
stemvagrantrarelyAphididaeGlyphina pseudoschrankiana
leafvagrantAphididaeHormaphis betulae

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 13.v.2020