Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Betula pendula

silver birch

synonym: Betula aetnensis, glutinosa Wallroth, oycowiensis Rchb., verrucosa

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem scale Steingeliidae Steingelia gorodetskia
leaf vagrant doubtful Thripidae Thrips alni
stem borer Cerambycidae Anoplophora chinensis
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborinus attenuatus
leaf vagrant main Thripidae Mycterothrips consociatus
leaf predator Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips kurdjumovi
leaf leaf spot anamorph Gnomoniaceae Gnomonia intermedia
leaf leaf spot anamorph Melanconiaceae Melanconis stilbostoma
leaf leaf spot Helotiales incertae sedis Monostichella betularum
leaf leaf spot Gnomoniaceae Asteroma microspermum
leaf leaf spot Ploettnerulaceae Pyrenopeziza betulina
dead wood borer rarely Cerambycidae Rhagium inquisitor
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Xylotrechus rusticus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Macroleptura thoracica
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Rhagium mordax
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Xylotrechus arvicola
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Aegosoma scabricorne
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Lepturalia nigripes
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Rhagium bifasciatum
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Strangalia attenuata
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Pedostrangalia revestita
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Stictoleptura rubra
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Morimus asper
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Rutpela maculata
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Leptura quadrifasciata
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Xylosteus bartoni
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Aegomorphus clavipes
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Leiopus nebulosus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Ropalopus clavipes
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Mesosa nebulosa
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Exocentrus adspersus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Stictoleptura cordigera
stem scale Coccidae Eulecanium tiliae
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus armenicus
stem gall Diaspididae Chionaspis salicis
leaf scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus aetnensis
leaf vagrant Acanthosomatidae Elasmucha grisea
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Panonychus ulmi
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae
leaf hidden Tortricidae Metendothenia atropunctana
leaf hidden Pyralidae Cryptoblabes bistriga
leaf hidden Tortricidae Epinotia brunnichana
leaf miner Roeslerstammiidae Roeslerstammia erxlebella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Carpatolechia alburnella
stem borer Xiphydryiidae Xiphydria betulae
systemic film Peronosporaceae Phytophthora cactorum
leaf pustule Venturiaceae Atopospora betulina
stem kanker Xylariaceae Sphaeria aristata
leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae Venturia ditricha
leaf leaf spot Gnomoniaceae Gloeosporium leptothyrioides
leaf leaf spot Dermateaceae Marssonina betulae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria betulina
leaf leaf spot Dothideomycetes Asteromella maculiformis
stem borer Cossidae Zeuzera pyrina
predator Miridae Campyloneura virgula
leaf vagrant Miridae Psallus falleni
leaf vagrant Miridae Psallus betuleti
fruit vagrant main Lygaeidae Kleidocerys resedae
predator Miridae Heterotoma planicornis
leaf vagrant Miridae Psallus montanus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Polydrusus inustus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus tenebricosus
root vagrant larva Curculionidae Phyllobius pyri
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus coecus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Phyllobius arborator
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Phyllobius glaucus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus carinatopunctatus
leaf vagrant Limacodidae Heterogenea asella
leaf vagrant Limacodidae Apoda limacodes
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Coenophila subrosea
leaf scale doubtful Aleyrodidae Pealius quercus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Polia hepatica
stem borer Cerambycidae Trichoferus campestris
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Orthosia incerta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Orthosia gracilis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Anorthoa munda
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia w-latinum
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Brachionycha nubeculosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Xylena vetusta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Allophyes oxyacanthae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Ammoconia caecimacula
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Enargia paleacea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Cosmia trapezina
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Amphipyra pyramidea
leaf vagrant Nolidae Pseudoips prasinana
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora potentillae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta alni
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta tridens
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta psi
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta leporina
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta rumicis
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Callophrys rubi
leaf vagrant Erebidae Orgyia recens
leaf vagrant Erebidae Orgyia antiqua
leaf vagrant Erebidae Calliteara pudibunda
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euproctis chrysorrhoea
leaf vagrant Notodontidae Odontosia carmelita
leaf vagrant Notodontidae Pheosia gnoma
leaf vagrant Notodontidae Ptilodon capucina
leaf vagrant Notodontidae Notodonta dromedarius
leaf vagrant Geometridae Erannis defoliaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Agriopis marginaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lycia hirtaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lycia pomonaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Deileptenia ribeata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Alcis repandata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Paradarisa consonaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Parectropis similaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Aethalura punctulata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Cabera pusaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Cabera exanthemata
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora violacea
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora siccifolia
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Drepana falcataria
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Falcaria lacertinaria
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Watsonalla binaria
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Watsonalla uncinula
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Drepana curvatula
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Sabra harpagula
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Mimas tiliae
leaf vagrant Endromidae Endromis versicolora
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Poecilocampa populi
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Trichiura crataegi
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Eriogaster lanestris
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Eriogaster arbusculae
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Malacosoma neustria
leaf vagrant Saturniidae Aglia tau
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Smerinthus ocellata
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Tetheella fluctuosa
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Ochropacha duplaris
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Achlya flavicornis
leaf vagrant Notodontidae Phalera bucephala
leaf vagrant Notodontidae Furcula furcula
leaf vagrant Notodontidae Stauropus fagi
leaf vagrant Geometridae Macaria alternata
stem borer Curculionidae Zeuzera pyrina
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ennomos erosaria
leaf vagrant doubtful Geometridae Epione vespertaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ennomos quercinaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Crocallis elinguaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Selenia dentaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Selenia tetralunaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Odontopera bidentata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Colotois pennaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Biston betularia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Epirrita dilutata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Epirrita christyi
leaf vagrant Geometridae Epirrita autumnata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ectropis crepuscularia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Operophtera fagata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Eulithis testata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Chloroclysta siterata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Chloroclysta miata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Dysstroma citrata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Dysstroma truncata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Plemyria rubiginata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Electrophaes corylata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Rheumaptera hastata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Cleora cinctaria
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Nymphalis antiopa
leaf vagrant Geometridae Cyclophora albipunctata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Geometra papilionaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Jodis lactearia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Macaria notata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Plagodis pulveraria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ennomos alniaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Peribatodes ilicaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Archiearis parthenias
stem borer Cossidae Cossus cossus
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Hypatima rhomboidella
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus obscuricollis
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus olivicolor
leaf vagrant doubtful Tenthredinidae Platycampus luridiventris
leaf vagrant Tingidae Physatocheila costata
stem borer Buprestidae Melanophila acuminata
stem borer Buprestidae Chrysobothris affinis
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus betuleti
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus viridis
stem borer Buprestidae Dicerca furcata
leaf hidden Pyralidae Ortholepis betulae
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Brachyderes incanus
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Chionodes viduella
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Linnavuoriana decempunctata
leaf vagrant adult Cicadellidae Platymetopius guttatus
leaf vagrant adult Cicadellidae Platymetopius major
leaf vagrant Issidae Issus coleoptratus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Kybos aetnicola
leaf vagrant adult Cicadellidae Allygidius commutatus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Kybos ludus
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Oncopsis appendiculata
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Kybos lindbergi
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Oncopsis flavicollis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Oncopsis tristis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Aguriahana stellulata
leaf vagrant adult Cicadellidae Lindbergina aurovittata
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Orientus ishidae
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Oncopsis subangulata
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Edwardsiana bergmani
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Kybos calyculus
stem borer Curculionidae Trypodendron domesticum
stem borer Curculionidae Anisandrus maiche
stem borer Curculionidae Liparthrum mandibulare
stem borer Curculionidae Taphrorychus villifrons
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborus monographus
stem borer Curculionidae Scolytus intricatus
stem borer Curculionidae Scolytus ratzeburgi
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborinus saxesenii
stem borer Curculionidae Xylosandrus germanus
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborus dispar
flower borer larva doubtful Curculionidae Curculio betulae
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Strophosoma melanogrammum
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Altica aenescens
stem borer Curculionidae Magdalis carbonaria
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura vicina
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura brevivalvis
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura umbrata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo atra
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura ampla
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura berolinensis
leaf vagrant Argidae Arge dimidiata
leaf vagrant Argidae Arge fuscipes
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Caliroa annulipes
leaf vagrant Cimbicidae Trichiosoma vitellina
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura viridis
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura connecta
leaf vagrant doubtful Tenthredinidae Allantus cingillum
leaf vagrant Argidae Arge pullata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura poecilonota
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Rhogogaster punctulata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Rhogogaster scalaris
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Empria candidata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Euura dispar
leaf vagrant Argidae Arge metallica
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Nematus latipes
stem borer Xiphydryiidae Xiphydria longicollis
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Pamphilius varius
leaf vagrant Cimbicidae Trichiosoma lucorum
leaf vagrant Argidae Arge ustulata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Nematus septentrionalis
leaf vagrant doubtful Tenthredinidae Euura nigricornis
stem borer main Xiphydryiidae Xiphydria camelus
leaf hidden Tortricidae Apotomis sororculana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Apotomis turbidana
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Pamphilius pallipes
leaf vagrant Cimbicidae Cimbex femoratus
leaf hidden Chimabachidae Diurnea fagella
leaf hidden Chimabachidae Diurnea lipsiella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ancylis upupana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Orthotaenia undulana
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Dichomeris ustalella
leaf hidden Choreutidae Choreutis diana
leaf hidden Chimabachidae Dasystoma salicella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Carpatolechia proximella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Apotomis betuletana
leaf hidden Elachistidae Semioscopis avellanella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Teleiodes wagae
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ancylis tineana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Lobesia reliquana
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Anacampsis blattariella
leaf hidden main Tortricidae Epinotia solandriana
flower borer Tortricidae Epinotia demarniana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Epinotia trigonella
leaf hidden Elachistidae Exaeretia ciniflonella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Spilonota ocellana
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Dineura virididorsata
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora melanocarpa
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips rosana
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora alpestris
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora pseudocoactula
leaf hidden Tortricidae Choristoneura diversana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis cerasana
leaf vagrant larva Tenthredinidae Hemichroa crocea
leaf vagrant larva Tenthredinidae Hemichroa australis
leaf oviposition scar egg Tenthredinidae Hemichroa crocea
leaf oviposition scar egg Tenthredinidae Hemichroa australis
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Adoxophyes orana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris logiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris lipsiana
leaf hidden doubtful Tortricidae Acleris notana
inquiline Eriophyidae Eriophyes betulinus
flower borer larva Curculionidae Coeliodinus phrymos
flower borer larva Curculionidae Coeliodinus nigritarsis
flower borer larva Curculionidae Curculio rubidus
leaf gall larva Rhynchitidae Byctiscus betulae
leaf gall larva main Rhynchitidae Deporaus betulae
stem gall Prodoxidae Lampronia fuscatella
leaf gall larva Attelabidae Apoderus coryli
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora testacea
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
stem gall Tortricidae Epinotia tetraquetrana
stem borer main Sesiidae Synanthedon culiciformis
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon spuleri
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon scoliaeformis
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon spheciformis
stem borer Psilidae Chyliza leptogaster
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Eriocrania cicatricella
stem vagrant Psyllidae Chamaepsylla hartigii
stem vagrant Psyllidae Psylla betulae
fruit gall main Cecidomyiidae Semudobia betulae
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Semudobia tarda
flower borer Tortricidae Epinotia bilunana
flower gall Apionidae Betulapion simile
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura fastidiosa
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Semudobia skuhravae
flower gall Tortricidae Cochylis nana
leaf bud gall Eriophyidae Acalitus calycophthirus
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe ornata
leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia betulae
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera erineophila
leaf leaf spot Venturiales Fusicladium scribnerianum
leaf gall Aphididae Calaphis betulicola
leaf gall Aphididae Hamamelistes betulinus
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Anisostephus betulinus
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Massalongia betulifolia
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Massalongia rubra
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Resseliella betulicola
leaf gall Eriophyidae Acalitus longisetosus
leaf gall Eriophyidae Acalitus rudis
leaf gall Eriophyidae Cecidophyopsis betulae
leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina bacteriosperma
leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina betulae
leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina carnea
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza alnibetulae
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix demaryella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora betulella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora binderella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora fuscocuprella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora milvipennis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora orbitella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella
leaf miner Curculionidae Anoplus plantaris
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes jota
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes rusci
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes calceatus
leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus pulicarius
leaf miner Curculionidae Tachyerges stigma
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Eriocrania salopiella
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Eriocrania sangii
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Eriocrania semipurpurella
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Eriocrania sparrmannella
leaf miner Eriocraniidae Heringocrania unimaculella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Caloptilia betulicola
leaf miner main Gracillariidae Caloptilia populetorum
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix betulae
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter cavella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter corylifoliella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella
leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria pectinea
leaf miner Incurvariidae Phylloporia bistrigella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera malifoliella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia prunifoliella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia minimella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia occultella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella betulicola
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella confusella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella continuella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella lapponica
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella luteella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella naturnella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella sakhalinella
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenusa pumila
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenusella nana
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Heterarthrus nemoratus
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Profenusa thomsoni
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Scolioneura betuleti
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Argyresthia goedartella
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Atemelia torquatella
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Swammerdamia caesiella
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsoridium betulinum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Euceraphis betulae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Acaphylla acromia
stem gall Rhizobiales Agrobacterium tumefaciens
stem gall Santalaceae Viscum album
stem vagrant Aphididae Glyphina betulae
stem vagrant Aphididae Symydobius oblongus
stem vagrant rarely Aphididae Stomaphis quercus
stem witches’ broom Taphrinales Taphrina betulina
stem witches’ broom Taphrinales Taphrina nana
leaf oviposition scar Tenthredinidae Hemichroa crocea
leaf vagrant Aphididae Betulaphis quadrituberculata
leaf vagrant main Aphididae Betulaphis brevipilosa
leaf vagrant Aphididae Callipterinella tuberculata
leaf vagrant Aphididae Monaphis antennata
stem vagrant Aphididae Clethrobius comes
leaf vagrant Aphididae Callipterinella calliptera
flower vagrant Aphididae Callipterinella minutissima
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni
stem scale rarely Coccidae Palaeolecanium bituberculatum
leaf vagrant Aphididae Calaphis flava
stem scale Coccidae Pulvinaria vitis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Euceraphis punctipennis
stem vagrant rarely Aphididae Glyphina pseudoschrankiana
leaf vagrant Aphididae Hormaphis betulae

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 3.ii.2024