Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Betula pubescens

downy birch

synonym: Betula alba, carpatica, celtiberica, concinna, coriacea, lenta, murithii, odorata, populifolia, pubescens subsp. carpatica + odorata + tortuosa, tortuosa

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeChrysomela lapponica
leafvagrantChrysomelidaeAltica aenescens
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura aegra
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaeEuura berolinensis
leafvagrantArgidaeArge dimidiata
leafvagrantCimbicidaeCimbex femoratus
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeNematus septentrionalis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura dispar
leafvagrantArgidaeArge fuscipes
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura umbrata
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaeAllantus cingillum
leafoviposition scareggTenthredinidaeHemichroa australis
leafvagrantlarvaTenthredinidaeHemichroa australis
leafvagrantArgidaeArge pullata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura betulae
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora trochanterica
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEmpria magnicornis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeNematinus acuminatus
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEmpria candidata
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaeEmpria fletcheri
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeNematus latipes
leafvagrantArgidaeArge ustulata
leafhiddenPamphilidaePamphilius varius
leafvagrantCimbicidaeTrichiosoma lucorum
leafhiddenPamphilidaePamphilius pallipes
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDiurnea lipsiella
leafhiddenChoreutidaeChoreutis diana
leafhiddenGelechiidaeCarpatolechia proximella
leafhiddenTortricidaeLobesia reliquana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis tineana
leafhiddenGelechiidaePseudotelphusa paripunctella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora potentillae
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeDineura virididorsata
leafhiddenTortricidaeEulia ministrana
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaePristiphora cincta
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora melanocarpa
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora ruficornis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora albilabris
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris notana
stemgallProdoxidaeLampronia fuscatella
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculus megacrinis
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeCoeliodinus phrymos
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeCoeliodinus nigritarsis
leafgalllarvamainRhynchitidaeDeporaus betulae
stemborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia retinella
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeCaliroa annulipes
stemvagrantAphididaeStomaphis quercus
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora testacea
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon scoliaeformis
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon spheciformis
stemvagrantPsyllidaeChamaepsylla hartigii
stemvagrantPsyllidaePsylla betulae
fruitgallCecidomyiidaeSemudobia betulae
fruitgallmainCecidomyiidaeSemudobia tarda
flowerborerTortricidaeEpinotia bilunana
flowergallApionidaeBetulapion simile
flowergallCecidomyiidaeSemudobia skuhravae
flowergallTortricidaeCochylis nana
leaf budgallEriophyidaeAcalitus calycophthirus
leafminer>borerHeliozelidaeHeliozela hammoniella
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe ornata
leafdownErysiphalesPhyllactinia betulae
leafleaf spotVenturialesFusicladium scribnerianum
leafgallAphididaeHamamelistes betulinus
leafgallCecidomyiidaeAnisostephus betulinus
leafgallCecidomyiidaeMassalongia rubra
leafgallCecidomyiidaeResseliella betulicola
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus longisetosus
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus notolius
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus rudis
leafgallEriophyidaeCecidophyopsis betulae
leafgallEriophyidaeEriophyes leionotus
leafgallEriophyidaeEriophyes lissonotus
leafgallTaphrinalesTaphrina bacteriosperma
leafgallTaphrinalesTaphrina betulae
leafgallTaphrinalesTaphrina carnea
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza alnibetulae
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix demaryella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora betulella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora binderella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora cornutella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora fuscocuprella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora milvipennis
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora siccifolia
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora serratella
leafminerCurculionidaeAnoplus plantaris
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes jota
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes rusci
leafminermainCurculionidaeOrchestes calceatus
leafminerCurculionidaeRhamphus pulicarius
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania cicatricella
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania salopiella
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania sangii
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania semipurpurella
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania sparrmannella
leafminerEriocraniidaeHeringocrania unimaculella
leafminerGracillariidaeCaloptilia betulicola
leafminerGracillariidaeCaloptilia populetorum
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix betulae
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix loganella
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix traugotti
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter anderidae
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter cavella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter corylifoliella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter ulmifoliella
leafminerIncurvariidaeIncurvaria pectinea
leafminerIncurvariidaePhylloporia bistrigella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLeucoptera malifoliella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLyonetia clerkella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLyonetia prunifoliella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia minimella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia occultella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella betulicola
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella confusella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella continuella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella lapponica
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella luteella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella naturnella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella sakhalinella
leafminerTenthredinidaeFenusa pumila
leafminerTenthredinidaeFenusella nana
leafminerTenthredinidaeHeterarthrus nemoratus
leafminerTenthredinidaeProfenusa thomsoni
leafminerTenthredinidaeScolioneura betuleti
leafminerTenthredinidaeScolioneura vicina
leafminerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia goedartella
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMelampsoridium betulinum
leafvagrantAphididaeHormaphis betulae
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAcaphylla acromia
leafvagrantEriophyidaeEpitrimerus subacromius
stemgallRhizobialesAgrobacterium tumefaciens
stemgallSantalaceaeViscum album
stemvagrantAphididaeGlyphina betulae
stemvagrantAphididaeSymydobius oblongus
stemwitches’ broomTaphrinalesTaphrina betulina
stemwitches’ broomTaphrinalesTaphrina nana
leafgallAphididaeCalaphis betulicola
leafvagrantAphididaeBetulaphis quadrituberculata
leafvagrantAphididaeBetulaphis brevipilosa
leafvagrantdoubtfulAphididaeCallipterinella tuberculata
leafvagrantAphididaeEuceraphis punctipennis
leafvagrantAphididaeMonaphis antennata
stemvagrantdoubtfulAphididaeGlyphina jacutensis
stemvagrantAphididaeClethrobius comes
leafvagrantAphididaeCallipterinella calliptera
leafvagrantAphididaeCalaphis flava
stemvagrantAphididaeGlyphina pseudoschrankiana
flowervagrantAphididaeCallipterinella minutissima

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 24.vii.2020