Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Betula

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
rootvagrantCurculionidaeStrophosoma melanogrammum
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis carbonaria
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo atra
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura brevivalvis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeNematinus caledonicus
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura aegra
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura ampla
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura berolinensis
stemborerXiphydryiidaeXiphydria betulae
stemborerXiphydryiidaeXiphydria megapolitana
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura connecta
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaeAllantus cingillum
leafvagrantArgidaeArge pullata
stemborerTenthredinidaeTremex magus
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura vicina
stemgallrarelyincertae sedisConiosporium corticale
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura betulae
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeRhogogaster scalaris
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora trochanterica
leafvagrantCimbicidaePraia taczanowskii
leafvagrantCimbicidaeTrichiosoma vitellina
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeAllantus togatus
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura melanocephala
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura umbrata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura viridis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura pseudodispar
leafvagrantArgidaeArge dimidiata
stemborerdoubtfulTenthredinidaeCladius compressicornis
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaeAllantus basalis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura poecilonota
leafvagrantArgidaeArge fuscipes
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEmpria candidata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura dispar
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEmpria magnicornis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeNematinus acuminatus
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEuura cadderensis
leafvagrantArgidaeArge metallica
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaeEmpria fletcheri
leafvagrantCimbicidaeTrichiosoma lucorum
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeNematus latipes
stemborerXiphydryiidaeXiphydria longicollis
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaeEuura nigricornis
stemborermainXiphydryiidaeXiphydria camelus
stemborerXiphydryiidaeXiphydria prolongata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeRhogogaster punctulata
leafhiddenPamphilidaePamphilius varius
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeRhogogaster chlorosoma
leafhiddenTortricidaeApotomis sororculana
leafhiddenTortricidaeApotomis turbidana
leafhiddenPamphilidaePamphilius pallipes
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePlatycampus luridiventris
stemborerTenthredinidaeTremex alchymista
leafvagrantCimbicidaeCimbex femoratus
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDiurnea fagella
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDiurnea lipsiella
unknownunknownTortricidaeApotomis fraterculana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis upupana
leafhiddenTortricidaeCelypha lacunana
leafhiddenTortricidaeOrthotaenia undulana
leafhiddenGelechiidaeDichomeris ustalella
leafhiddenChoreutidaeChoreutis diana
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDasystoma salicella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeCarpatolechia proximella
leafhiddenTortricidaeCelypha rivulana
leafhiddenTortricidaeApotomis betuletana
leafhiddenElachistidaeSemioscopis oculella
leafhiddenElachistidaeSemioscopis avellanella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeTeleiodes wagae
flowerborerTortricidaeEpinotia ramella
leafhiddenTortricidaeLobesia reliquana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis tineana
unknownunknownTortricidaeArgyroploce concretana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips betulana
leafhiddenGelechiidaeAnacampsis blattariella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeTeleiodes luculella
leafhiddenGelechiidaePseudotelphusa paripunctella
leafminerGelechiidaeRecurvaria nanella
leafhiddenTortricidaeHedya nubiferana
leafhiddenYpsolophidaeYpsolopha parenthesella
leafhiddenmainTortricidaeEpinotia solandriana
leafhiddenYpsolophidaeYpsolopha parenthesella
flowerborerTortricidaePammene obscurana
flowerborerTortricidaeEpinotia demarniana
leafhiddenTortricidaeEpinotia solandriana
leafhiddenTortricidaeEpinotia trigonella
leafhiddenElachistidaeExaeretia ciniflonella
leafhiddenTortricidaeSpilonota ocellana
leafvagrantArgidaeArge ustulata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeNematus septentrionalis
leafvagrantThripidaeClosterotomus fulvomaculatus
leafhiddenTortricidaeEulia ministrana
leafhiddenTortricidaeDitula angustiorana
stemborerTenthredinidaeTremex fuscicornis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeDineura virididorsata
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis spectrana
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora cadma
leafvagrantdoubtfulTenthredinidaePristiphora cincta
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora ruficornis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora melanocarpa
leafhiddenTortricidaeSyndemis musculana
leafvagrantTortricidaeAphelia viburniana
leafhiddenTortricidaeChoristoneura hebenstreitella
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips rosana
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora pseudocoactula
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora albilabris
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora borea
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips podana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips crataegana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips xylosteana
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora alpestris
leafhiddenTortricidaeChoristoneura diversana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis cinnamomeana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis corylana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis heparana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis cerasana
leafvagrantlarvaTenthredinidaeHemichroa crocea
leafvagrantlarvaTenthredinidaeHemichroa australis
leafoviposition scareggTenthredinidaeHemichroa crocea
leafoviposition scareggTenthredinidaeHemichroa australis
unknownunknownNepticulidaeBohemannia auriciliella
stemgallHypocrealesNeonectria ditissima
stemscaleDiaspididaeDiaspidiotus ostreaeformis
leafhiddenTortricidaeCapua vulgana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAdoxophyes orana
leafhiddendoubtfulTortricidaeNeosphaleroptera nubilana
leafhiddenTortricidaeTortricodes alternella
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris lipsiana
leafhiddendoubtfulTortricidaeAcleris emargana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris logiana
leafhiddendoubtfulTortricidaeAcleris notana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArgyrotaenia ljungiana
leafhiddendoubtfulTortricidaePtycholomoides aeriferana
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculus megacrinis
inquilineEriophyidaeEriophyes betulinus
leafmineryounger larvaAdelidaeNemophora bellela
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeCoeliodinus phrymos
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeCoeliodinus nigritarsis
flowerborerlarvadoubtfulCurculionidaeCurculio betulae
flowerborerlarvaCurculionidaeCurculio rubidus
leafminerlarvamainRhynchitidaeCaenorhinus mannerheimii
leafgalllarvaRhynchitidaeByctiscus betulae
leafgalllarvamainRhynchitidaeDeporaus betulae
stemgallProdoxidaeLampronia fuscatella
stemborerlarvaRhynchitidaeTemnocerus nanus
stemborerlarvaRhynchitidaeTemnocerus longiceps
stemborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia glaucinella
stemborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia retinella
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeCaliroa annulipes
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora testacea
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes ulmi
stemgallrarelySesiidaeParanthrene tabaniformis
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon vespiformis
stemborermainSesiidaeSynanthedon culiciformis
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon spuleri
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon scoliaeformis
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon spheciformis
stemborerPsilidaeChyliza leptogaster
stemvagrantPsyllidaeChamaepsylla hartigii
stemvagrantPsyllidaePsylla betulae
stemvagrantPsyllidaePsylla betulaenanae
root collarvagrantAphididaeStomaphis radicidola
fruitgallCecidomyiidaeSemudobia betulae
fruitgallCecidomyiidaeSemudobia tarda
flowerborerTortricidaeEpinotia bilunana
flowerborerTortricidaeEpinotia immundana
flowergallApionidaeBetulapion simile
flowergallCecidomyiidaeSemudobia skuhravae
flowergallCecidomyiidaeDasineura fastidiosa
flowergallTortricidaeCochylis nana
leaf budgallEriophyidaeAcalitus calycophthirus
leafminer>borerHeliozelidaeHeliozela hammoniella
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe ornata
leafdownErysiphalesPhyllactinia betulae
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera erineophila
leafleaf spotVenturialesFusicladium scribnerianum
leafgallAphididaeCalaphis betulicola
leafgallAphididaeHamamelistes betulinus
leafgallCecidomyiidaeAnisostephus betulinus
leafgallCecidomyiidaeResseliella betulicola
leafgallCecidomyiidaeMassalongia bachmaieri
leafgallCecidomyiidaeMassalongia betulifolia
leafgallCecidomyiidaeMassalongia rubra
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus longisetosus
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus notolius
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria fennica
leafgallEriophyidaeAcalitus rudis
leafgallEriophyidaeCecidophyopsis betulae
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria vinosa
leafgallEriophyidaeEriophyes leionotus
leafgallEriophyidaeEriophyes lissonotus
leafgallTaphrinalesTaphrina bacteriosperma
leafgallTaphrinalesTaphrina betulae
leafgallTaphrinalesTaphrina carnea
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza alnibetulae
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix demaryella
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix thoracella
leafminerBuprestidaeTrachys minutus
leafminerdoubtfulColeophoridaeColeophora alnifoliae
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora anatipenella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora betulella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora binderella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora cornutella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora currucipennella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora fuscocuprella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora milvipennis
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora orbitella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora potentillae
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora prunifoliae
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora serratella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora siccifolia
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora violacea
leafminerCurculionidaeRhamphus pulicarius
leafminerCurculionidaeAnoplus plantaris
leafminerCurculionidaeTachyerges pseudostigma
leafminerCurculionidaeTachyerges stigma
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes jota
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes rusci
leafminerCurculionidaeOrchestes calceatus
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania cicatricella
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania salopiella
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania sangii
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania semipurpurella
leafminerEriocraniidaeEriocrania sparrmannella
leafminerEriocraniidaeHeringocrania unimaculella
leafminerGracillariidaeCaloptilia betulicola
leafminermainGracillariidaeCaloptilia populetorum
leafminerdoubtfulGracillariidaeCaloptilia suberinella
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix betulae
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix loganella
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix polygrammella
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix traugotti
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter anderidae
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter cavella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter corylifoliella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter ulmifoliella
leafminerIncurvariidaeIncurvaria pectinea
leafminerIncurvariidaePhylloporia bistrigella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLeucoptera malifoliella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLyonetia clerkella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLyonetia prunifoliella
leafminerrarelyNepticulidaeStigmella alnetella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella betulicola
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella confusella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella continuella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella lapponica
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella luteella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella naturnella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella sakhalinella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella tristis
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia minimella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia occultella
leafminerPsychidaeApterona helicoidella
leafminerRoeslerstammiidaeRoeslerstammia erxlebella
leafminerTenthredinidaeScolioneura betuleti
leafminerTenthredinidaeScolioneura vicina
leafminerTenthredinidaeFenusa pumila
leafminerTenthredinidaeFenusella nana
leafminerTenthredinidaeHeterarthrus nemoratus
leafminerTenthredinidaeProfenusa thomsoni
leafminerYponomeutidaeSwammerdamia caesiella
leafminerYponomeutidaeSwammerdamia passerella
leafminerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia brockeella
leafminerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia goedartella
leafminerYponomeutidaeAtemelia torquatella
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMelampsoridium betulinum
leafvagrantAphididaeEuceraphis betulae
leafvagrantAphididaeHormaphis betulae
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAcaphylla acromia
leafvagrantEriophyidaeEpitrimerus subacromius
stemborerAgromyzidaePhytobia betulivora
stemborerdoubtfulAgromyzidaePhytobia cambii
stemborerCurculionidaeCryptorhynchus lapathi
stemgallDiaspididaeChionaspis salicis
stemscaleDiaspididaeEpidiaspis leperii
stemgallRhizobialesAgrobacterium tumefaciens
stemgallSantalaceaeViscum album
stemgallTortricidaeEpinotia tetraquetrana
stemvagrantAphididaeSymydobius oblongus
stemvagrantrarelyAphididaeStomaphis quercus
stemvagrantAphididaeGlyphina betulae
stemwitches’ broomTaphrinalesTaphrina betulina
stemwitches’ broomTaphrinalesTaphrina nana
inquilineCecidomyiidaeDasineura betuleti
inquilineCecidomyiidaeDasineura interbracta
inquilineEriophyidaeCecidophyopsis vermiformis
leafvagrantmainAphididaeBetulaphis brevipilosa
leafvagrantAphididaeBetulaphis quadrituberculata
leafvagrantAphididaeCallipterinella tuberculata
stemscalerarelyCoccidaePalaeolecanium bituberculatum
stemvagrantAphididaeClethrobius comes
leafvagrantAphididaeEuceraphis punctipennis
stemvagrantdoubtfulAphididaeGlyphina jacutensis
leafoviposition scarTenthredinidaeHemichroa crocea
leafvagrantAphididaeMonaphis antennata
stemvagrantAphididaeSymydobius nanae
leafvagrantAphididaeCallipterinella calliptera
stemscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus aceris
stemscaleCoccidaeEulecanium tiliae
stemscaleCoccidaeParthenolecanium corni
flowervagrantAphididaeCallipterinella minutissima
leafvagrantAphididaeCalaphis flava
leafvagrantAphididaeBetulaphis pelei
leafvagrantAphididaeCalaphis arctica
stemscaleCoccidaePulvinaria vitis

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 21.v.2020