Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Quercus oak

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Quercus by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a mine ending with an excision => 2

1b blotch, may have a short, quickly widening preceding corridor => 7

1c blotch, preceded by a long, slender initial corridor => 15

1d corridor from start to end => 19

1e tentiform mine => 29

1f fleck mine => 51

1g galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species

2a excision round, in the upper epidermis only: Tischeria decidua

2b excision round or oval, throughout the leaf => 3

3a excision oval, preceded by a short corridor the begins in the leaf base or midrib: Heliozela sericiella

3b excision round => 4

4a excision preceded by a long corridor along the leaf margin => 5

4b no preceding corridor => 6

5a excision against the leaf margin: Orchestes erythropus

5b excision somewhat deeper in the leaf blade: Orchestes avellanae

6a larva: pronotum brown, meso- and metanotum pale with two small black spots: Incurvaria masculella

6b pro-, meso- and metanotum each dorsally with a large dark transverse spot: Incurvaria koerneriella

7a frass in threads or thread fragments; mine in the tender leaves, April-May => 8

7b frass in isolated granules; mines in summer => 9

8a frass partly in long threads, loose in the mine; larva white: Dyseriocrania subpurpurella

8b frass in thread fragments, glued to the upper epidermis; larva grey: Orchestes pilosus

9a mine full depth and transparent, < 3 mm => 10

9b mine upper-surface, larger => 12

10a mine in a vein axil, triangular => 11

10b mine free in the leaf, round or oval (young mines of Incurvaria) => 6

11a deciduous oaks; larvae in July-August: Caloptilia alchimiella

11b deciduous oaks; larvae in May, then again in August: Caloptilia robustella

11b evergreen oaks: Povolnya leucapennella

12a mine with discoid cocoon that is made already at an early stage and in which the larva is often seen resting in an u-shaped position; upper epidermis rather opaque => 13

12b mine greyis-green or greenish, without a cocoon, larva never in u-posture; upper epidermis transparent: Profenusa pygmaea

13a mine with concentric dark arc-lines around a point at the side of the mine; mine never milk-white => 14

13b mine without arc-lines, milk-white, sometimes with orange tinges: Tischeria ekebladella

14a mine brick red with dark-brown arc-lines: Tischeria dodonaea

14b mine yellowish-brown with greyish-green arc-lines: Tischeria decidua (jonge mijn)

15a mine begins at an oviposition scar at the underside of a thick vein: Orchestes quercus

15b mine does not start at an oviposition scar => 16

16a corridor and blotch largely epidermal, silvery; most often a number of mines later merge into one large blotch; no egg shell visible at the start of the mines: Acrocercops brongniardella (+ A. cocciferellum, A. tacita)

16b mine not epidermal, hardly ever merging; corridor start from a shiny egg shell => 17

17a the blotch has a large cut from where part of the frass is being expelled: Ectoedemia subbimaculella

17b no cut in the blotch => 18

18a corridor part runs towards the midrib; larva with brown-black head; usually in yellow, often fallen, leaves, in a green island: Ectoedemia heringi

18b corridor part runs parallel to, or away from, the midrib; larva with pale brown head; usually in green leaves: Ectoedemia albifasciella

19a mine < 1 cm, hook-shaped, in a vein axil => 20

19b mine longer, not in a vein axil => 22

20a on Quercus robur: Bucculatrix ulmella

20b on Quercus rubra => 21

21a free living larva grey, mottled with white; cocoon cream or yellowish: Bucculatrix ulmella

21b free living larva uniformly white; cocoon snow white: Bucculatrix ainsliella

22a corridor does not start at a visible egg shell, runs along the leaf margin: Orchestes avellanae (young mine)

22b corridor begins at a shiny round egg shell, may run along the leaf margin => 23

23a corridor strongly contorted, egg at under surface: Ectoedemia quinquella

23b corridor strongly contorted, egg at upper surface: Ectoedemia heringella

23c corridor less strongly wound => 24

24a whole width of the corridor filled with coiled frass (green when fresh, turning brown later); larva green: Stigmella basiguttella

24b frass brown or black, in a broad or narrow central line, always leaving a clear zone at the margin (mines of the following species cannot reliably be identified without breeding) => 25

25a frass in a narrow central line, never wider than 1/3 of the corridor width => 26

25b frass coiled or dispersed, frass line wider than 1/2 of the corridor width => 27

26a corridor unusually long and slender: Stigmella roborella

26b corridor wider and shorter: Stigmella atricapitella

27a mine very long; egg at leaf under-surface: Stigmella svenssoni

27b mine not very long; egg at upper- or lower-surface => 28

28a egg usually at lower-surface; mostly close to a thick vein: Stigmella samiatella

28b egg may be at either side, usually free on the lamina: Stigmella ruficapitella

29a on evergreen oaks => 30

29b on deciduous oaks => 38

30a mine upper-surface: Phyllonorycter belotella

30b mine lower-surface = 31

31a on Quercus macrolepis:Phyllonorycter graecus

31b on Quercus trojana: Phyllonorycter trojana

31c on Quercus faginea: Phyllonorycter barbarella

31d on Quercus coccifera => 32

31e on other oaks (in particular Quercus ilex and Q. suber) => 36

32a species from the western Mediterranean Region => 33

32b species from the eastern Mediterranean => 35

33a mine very large; pupa in a flimsy cocoon, frass in a clump: Phyllonorycter endryella

33b mine smaller => 34

34a cocoon covered by frass: Phyllonorycter rebimbasi

34b unknown: Phyllonorycter cocciferella

35a species from Crete: Phyllonorycter gerfriedi

35b species from the Greek mainland: Phyllonorycter olympica

36a mine very large; pupa in a flimsy cocoon, frass in a clump: Phyllonorycter endryella

36b mine not conspiuously large => 37

37a most frass alongside the cocoon: Phyllonorycter suberifoliella

37b most frass heaped in a corner of the mine: Phyllonorycter messaniella

38a cremaster with only one pair of spines visible from above; abdomen segment 9 laterally with two pairs of short thorns; pro- and mesonotum latero-anteriorly with a pair of small spines => 39

38b cremaster seen from above with two pairs of spines; no spines laterally on abd9 or pro- and mesonotum => 40

38c mines and pupae of Phyllonorycter amseli, Phyllonorycter barbarella, Phyllonorycter kusdasi, and Phyllonorycter sublautella are not or insufficiently known

39a inner pair of cremaster spines (visible anly ventrally) wide apart; only on Quercus pubescens: Phyllonorycter delitella

39b inner pair of spines set close together: Phyllonorycter harrisella

40a abdomen 2-4 laterally with a pair of strong, outward pointing spines => 41

40b abd2-4 without such spines => 44

41a abdomen 7 ventrally with a group of outward pointing spines => 42

41b abd7 without such a group => 43

42a metanotum laterally with a pit near its rear margin: Phyllonorycter muelleriella

42b metanotum without such a pit: Phyllonorycter messaniella

43a spinulation dorsally on abdomen 9-10 extremely coarse: Phyllonorycter quercifoliella

43b spinulation here fine: Phyllonorycter parisiella

44a inner pair of cremaster spines with a very broad base: Phyllonorycter ilicifoliella

44b basis of inner and outer pairs more or less equal => 45

45a inner pair cremaster spines very short: Phyllonorycter scitulella

45b inner pair of spines not extremely short => 46

46a outer pair of cremaster spines slender, on a narrow base => 47

46b outer pair short and squat, on a broad base => 49

47a inner and outer pair of almost equal length: Phyllonorycter abrasella

47b inner pair 0.5 – 0.7 times the length of the outer pair => 48

48a metanotum laterally with a pit near its rear margin: Phyllonorycter roboris

48b metanotum without such a pit: Phyllonorycter distentella

49a cremaster ventrally as long as wide: Phyllonorycter lautella

49b cremaster shorter than wide => 50

50a frontal extension of the pronotum dorsally smooth: Phyllonorycter heegeriella

50b frontal extension of the pronotum dorsally sculptured: Phyllonorycter kuhlweiniella

51a case consists of a fragment of the stem of a plant, generally a grass: Epidola stigma

51b tubular silken case => 52

51c pistol case => 53

52a larva: mesonotum with a pair of roundish shields: Coleophora lutipennella

52b mesonotum with a pair of wedge-shaped shields: Coleophora flavipennella

53a “pistol-handle” with ear-like appendages: Coleophora currucipennella

53b pistol-handle with a short or long, transparent mantle (pallium), but no ears => 54

53c neither pallium nor ears: Coleophora anatipenella

54a pallium covering the entire case, reaching down to almost the mouth: Coleophora kuehnella

54b pallium less extensive, reaching down to halfway the mouth: Coleophora ibipennella

Not included in the key: Orchestes hungaricus, Orchestes sparsus (mines not described).

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 1.iii.2024