Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Myrica gale


organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Geometridae Chariaspilates formosaria
leaf miner Tortricidae Rhopobota myrtillana
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus morio
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni
leaf hidden Tortricidae Metendothenia atropunctana
leaf bud vagrant Gelechiidae Gnorimoschema bodillum
leaf hidden Tortricidae Notocelia cynosbatella
leaf vagrant Miridae Apolygus spinolae
leaf vagrant Miridae Lygocoris rugicollis
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Eurois occulta
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lycia lapponaria
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Coenophila subrosea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lithophane lamda
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Xylena vetusta
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta menyanthidis
leaf vagrant Saturniidae Saturnia pavonia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Selenia dentaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Rheumaptera hastata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Cleora cinctaria
leaf vagrant Pyralidae Udea ferrugalis
stem vagrant adult Aphrophoridae Aphrophora major
leaf hidden Chimabachidae Diurnea fagella
leaf hidden Chimabachidae Dasystoma salicella
leaf hidden rarely Tortricidae Stictea mygindiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pammene luedersiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips betulana
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Pseudotelphusa paripunctella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Hedya nubiferana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Epinotia caprana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Spilonota ocellana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis senecionana
leaf hidden main Tortricidae Choristoneura lafauryana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips rosana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Choristoneura hebenstreitella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis heparana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Philedonides lunana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Philedone gerningana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ditula angustiorana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris lipsiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris rufana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris maccana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris caledoniana
leaf hidden rarely Tortricidae Acleris notana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Aphelia viburniana
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Phacellium rufibasis
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix cidarella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora cornutella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora lusciniaepennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora milvipennis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orchestes jota
leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus pulicarius
leaf miner Gracillariidae Caloptilia stigmatella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia ledi
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella salicis
leaf miner rarely Yponomeutidae Atemelia torquatella
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes myricae
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora siccifolia
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzocallis myricae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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