Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Euphorbia characias

mediterranean spurge

synonym: Euphorbia veneta

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantSphingidaeHyles nicaea
leafvagrantSphingidaeHyles euphorbiae
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeAphthona perrisi
unknownunknownEurytomidaeEurytoma fumipennis
unknownunknownEurytomidaeEurytoma scalaris
stemborerCurculionidaeThamnurgus varipes
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeAphthona atrocaerulea
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeAphthona punctiventris
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeAphthona illigeri
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeAphthona pygmaea
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeAphthona venustula
unknownscaleEriococcidaeRhizococcus henryi
stemscaleEriococcidaeRhizococcus reynei
leafhiddenPyralidaeDenticera divisella
stemborerCurculionidaeThamnurgus characiae
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeSpurgia euphorbiae
stemborerAgromyzidaeOphiomyia penicillata
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza pascuum
rootborerSesiidaeChamaesphecia anthraciformis
rootborerSesiidaeChamaesphecia bibioniformis
stemborerCurculionidaeThamnurgus euphorbiae
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis vallei
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis tirucallis
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis hillerislambersi
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeJanetiella euphorbiae
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera euphorbiae
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora embergeri
leafminerNepticulidaeMuhabbetana euphorbiella
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesEndophyllum euphorbiae-characiatis
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesMelampsora euphorbiae
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMelampsora euphorbiae-gerardiana


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 15.iv.2021