Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Populus balsamifera

eastern balsam-poplar

synonym: Populus candicans, tacamahacca

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeStauronematus platycerus
leafvagrantCicadellidaePopulicerus nitidissimus
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypophloeus tremulae
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeCrepidodera nitidula
leafminerTenthredinidaeHeterarthrus vikbergi
flowerborerlarvadoubtfulCurculionidaeDorytomus ictor
leafvagrantAphididaeChaitophorus populeti
stemborerSesiidaeSesia apiformis
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe adunca
leafdownErysiphalesPhyllactinia populi
leafgallAphididaePemphigus spyrothecae
leafgallspring generationAphididaePemphigus borealis
leafgallspring generationAphididaePemphigus bursarius
leafgallspring generationAphididaePemphigus populinigrae
leafgallspring generationAphididaeThecabius affinis
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria populi
leafgallPsyllidaeCamarotoscena speciosa
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza albitarsis
leafminerAgromyzidaeAulagromyza populicola
leafminerChrysomelidaeZeugophora flavicollis
leafminerCurculionidaeIsochnus sequensi
leafminerGracillariidaeCaloptilia stigmatella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllocnistis extrematrix
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllocnistis unipunctella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter populifoliella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLeucoptera sinuella
leafminerrarelyNepticulidaeEctoedemia intimella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella trimaculella
leafminerTortricidaeGypsonoma oppressana
leafoviposition scarTenthredinidaeCladius grandis
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMelampsora allii-populina
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMelampsora laricis-populina
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesMelampsora medusae
stemgallSantalaceaeViscum album
stemgallTortricidaeGypsonoma aceriana
stemvagrantAphididaePterocomma populeum
stemvagrantrarelyAphididaePterocomma rufipes


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 29.iii.2021