organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root collar borer Sesiidae Synanthedon polaris
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus tetanothrix
flower gall Eriophyidae Stenacis triradiata
bud gall Tenthredinidae Euura lanatae
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Rabdophaga iteobia
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Iteomyia major
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla ambigua
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla brunneipennis
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla palmeni
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla zaicevi
leaf gall Tenthredinidae Euura nivalis
leaf gall Tenthredinidae Euura glaucae
leaf gall Tenthredinidae Euura crassispina
leaf gall Tenthredinidae Euura destricta
leaf miner doubtful Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter rolandi
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsora epitea
leaf pustule uredinia telia rarely Pucciniales Melampsora laricis-epitea
stem vagrant Aphididae Pterocomma salicis
stem vagrant Aphididae Chaitophorus lapponum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 27.ix.2018