crack willow

It has been shown that Salix fragilis, as the name is commonly used, actually consists of a hybrid swarm between S. alba and S. euxina (Belyaeva, 2009a). Where the name has been used in the entomological literature, in exceptional cases S. euxina may have been intended, but generally the safest interpretation is Salix x fragilis.

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Argidae Arge enodis
leaf bud hidden Thripidae Thrips viminalis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis spectrana
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora confusa
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora luteipes
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris hastiana
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculops rhodensis
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Rabdophaga salicis
leaf vagrant main Cimbicidae Pseudoclavellaria amerinae
flower borer larva Curculionidae Acalyptus carpini
flower borer larva Curculionidae Dorytomus reussi
flower borer larva Curculionidae Dorytomus hirtipennis
flower borer larva Curculionidae Dorytomus occalescens
flower borer larva Curculionidae Dorytomus majalis
flower borer larva Curculionidae Dorytomus melanophthalmus
inquiline larva Apionidae Melanapion minimum
stem gall Sesiidae Synanthedon flaviventris
stem gall Cerambycidae Saperda populnea
stem gall Unknown code! Cecidomyiidae Rabdophaga pierrei
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Rabdophaga marginemtorquens
stem vagrant doubtful Aphididae Cavariella cicutae
leaf vagrant spring generation Aphididae Cavariella konoi
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus craspedobius
flower gall Eriophyidae Stenacis triradiata
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Rabdophaga rosaria
leaf bud gall Eriophyidae Aceria salicina
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe adunca
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Iteomyia capreae
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Rabdophaga nervorum
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Rabdophaga terminalis
leaf gall doubtful Eriophyidae Aculus laevis
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus magnirostris
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus pycnorhynchus
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aculus tetanothrix
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla brunneipennis
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla iteophila
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla moscovita
leaf gall main Psyllidae Cacopsylla saliceti
leaf gall Tenthredinidae Euura testaceipes
leaf gall Tenthredinidae Euura oblita
leaf gall Tenthredinidae Euura proxima
leaf gall Triozidae Bactericera albiventris
leaf gall Triozidae Bactericera maura
leaf gall Triozidae Bactericera striola
leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza albitarsis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Aulagromyza tridentata
leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys reflexus
leaf miner Chrysomelidae Zeugophora flavicollis
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora lusciniaepennella
leaf miner Curculionidae Isochnus foliorum
leaf miner Curculionidae Isochnus sequensi
leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus pulicarius
leaf miner Curculionidae Tachyerges decoratus
leaf miner Curculionidae Tachyerges salicis
leaf miner Gracillariidae Caloptilia stigmatella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllocnistis ramulicola
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllocnistis saligna
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllocnistis valentinensis
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter connexella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter heringiella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter pastorella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter salictella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera sinuella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia pulverulentella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia intimella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella nivenburgensis
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella obliquella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella salicis
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Heterarthrus microcephalus
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Yponomeuta rorrella
leaf oviposition scar Tenthredinidae Pristiphora conjugata
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsora allii-fragilis
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsora epitea
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsora galanthi-fragilis
leaf pustule uredinia telia rarely Pucciniales Melampsora laricis-epitea
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsora laricis-pentandrae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Acaphyllisa salicobia
stem borer Agromyzidae Phytobia cambii
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Rabdophaga deletrix
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Rabdophaga saliciperda
stem gall Santalaceae Viscum album
stem gall Sesiidae Synanthedon formicaeformis
stem gall Tenthredinidae Euura atra
stem oviposition scar Tenthredinidae Nematus miliaris
stem vagrant Aphididae Pterocomma salicis
stem vagrant Aphididae Plocamaphis amerinae
stem vagrant Aphididae Pterocomma pilosum
root gall Saproleginiales Jaraia salicis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Chaitophorus niger
leaf vagrant Aphididae Chaitophorus truncatus
leaf vagrant spring generation Aphididae Cavariella pastinacae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Chaitophorus horii beuthani
stem gall Aphididae Tuberolachnus salignus
stem vagrant Aphididae Pterocomma rufipes
stem vagrant Aphididae Chaitophorus vitellinae
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis farinosa
root vagrant Aphididae Pemphigus saliciradicis
stem vagrant Aphididae Plocamaphis flocculosa
stem vagrant Aphididae Neopterocomma asiphum
leaf vagrant spring generation main Aphididae Cavariella aegopodii
leaf vagrant spring generation Aphididae Cavariella theobaldi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 14.xii.2019