Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Viola

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafboreryounger larvaCosmopterigidaePancalia schwarzella
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeAmetastegia pallipes
leafhiddenPyralidaeUdea murinalis
stemborerCrambidaeHeliothela wulfeniana
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis spectrana
flowerhiddenThripidaeFrankliniella intonsa
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
leafhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculus schubarti
leafgallAphrophoridaePhilaenus spumarius
rootvagrantolder larvaCosmopterigidaePancalia leeuwenhoekella
leafboreryounger larvaCosmopterigidaePancalia leeuwenhoekella
fruitborerlarvaCurculionidaeOrobitis cyanea
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes setiger
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleyrodes lonicerae
leafleaf spotCapnodialesCercospora violae
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia agrestis
leafvagrantAphididaeNeotoxoptera violae
systemicborerAnguinidaeDitylenchus dipsaci
fruitgallUrocystidalesUrocystis kmetiana
leaf budgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura violae
leafdownErysiphalesGolovinomyces orontii
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora violae
leafgallAphelenchoididaeAphelenchoides fragariae
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura affinis
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura odoratae
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura violahirtae
leafgallCecidomyiidaeProdiplosis violicola
leafgallEriophyidaeCecidophyes violae
leafgallEriophyiidaeCoptophylla borealis
leafminerAgromyzidaeGaliomyza beckeri
leafminerAgromyzidaeGaliomyza violiphaga
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza strigata
leafminerAgromyzidaeLiriomyza violicaulis
leafminerCosmopterigidaePancalia nodosella
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes insignis
leafminerPsychidaeApterona helicoidella
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium alpinum
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium globosum
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium saxifragae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia cynodontis
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia violae
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesMelampsora lapponum
leafpustuleurediniaPuccinialesUredo alpestris
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia fergussonii
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia ruebelii
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia alpina
leafstripeUrocystidalesUrocystis violae
leafvagrantEriophyidaeEpitrimerus violarius
root collargallActinomycetalesRhodococcus fascians
root collarvagrantAphididaeAphis violae
rootgallMeloidogynidaeMeloidogyne hapla
predatorCecidomyiidaeLestodiplosis affinis
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeBrachycaudus helichrysi
leafvagrantAphididaeMyzus cymbalariae
leafvagrantAphididaeMyzus ascalonicus
leafvagrantAphididaeMyzus certus
rootvagrantsummer generationAphididaeRhopalosiphoninus staphyleae tulipaellus
rootvagrantAphididaeRhopalosiphoninus latysiphon
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeMyzus persicae
stemvagrantrarelyAphididaeIllinoia azaleae
leafvagrantAphididaeMyzus ornatus


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 13.v.2020