organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
unknown unknown Cosmopterigidae Pancalia schwarzella
root vagrant older larva Cosmopterigidae Pancalia leeuwenhoekella
leaf borer younger larva Cosmopterigidae Pancalia leeuwenhoekella
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Orobitis cyanea
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes setiger
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Cercospora violae
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia agrestis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Neotoxoptera violae
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
fruit gall Urocystidales Urocystis kmetiana
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura violae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces orontii
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora violae
leaf gall Aphelenchoididae Aphelenchoides fragariae
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura affinis
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura odoratae
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura violahirtae
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Prodiplosis violicola
leaf gall Eriophyidae Cecidophyes violae
leaf gall Eriophyiidae Coptophylla borealis
leaf miner Agromyzidae Galiomyza beckeri
leaf miner Agromyzidae Galiomyza violiphaga
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza violicaulis
leaf miner Cosmopterigidae Pancalia nodosella
leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis
leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium alpinum
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium globosum
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium saxifragae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cynodontis
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia violae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora lapponum
leaf pustule uredinia Pucciniales Uredo alpestris
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia fergussonii
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia ruebelii
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia alpina
leaf stripe Urocystidales Urocystis violae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus violarius
root collar gall Actinomycetales Rhodococcus fascians
root collar vagrant Aphididae Aphis violae
root gall Meloidogynidae Meloidogyne hapla
predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis affinis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus cymbalariae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ascalonicus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus certus
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphoninus staphyleae tulipaellus
root vagrant Aphididae Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
stem vagrant rarely Aphididae Illinoia azaleae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ornatus

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

mod 13.viii.2019