Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Viola arvensis

field pansy

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia agrestis var. deflectens
root vagrant Thyreocoridae Thyreocoris scarabaeoides
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Issoria lathonia
stem borer Crambidae Heliothela wulfeniana
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia agrestis
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
fruit gall Urocystidales Urocystis kmetiana
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura violae
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces orontii
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora violae
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Prodiplosis violicola
leaf gall Eriophyidae Cecidophyes violae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza violicaulis
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cynodontis
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia violae
root collar vagrant Aphididae Aphis violae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ascalonicus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus certus


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 31.vii.2022