Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Viola canina

heath dog-violet

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
rootfilmCeratobasidiaceaeRhizoctonia solani
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia lactea
leafvagrantGeometridaeCamptogramma bilineata
leafvagrantNymphalidaeIssoria lathonia
leafvagrantNymphalidaeBoloria euphrosyne
leafvagrantNymphalidaeArgynnis aglaja
leafvagrantNymphalidaeArgynnis niobe
leafvagrantNymphalidaeArgynnis adippe
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeTenthredo notha
leafboreryounger larvaCosmopterigidaePancalia schwarzella
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeAmetastegia pallipes
leafminerCosmopterigidaePancalia nodosella
rootvagrantolder larvaCosmopterigidaePancalia leeuwenhoekella
leafboreryounger larvaCosmopterigidaePancalia leeuwenhoekella
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes setiger
leafleaf spotCapnodialesCercospora violae
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura affinis
leafgallEriophyidaeCecidophyes violae
leafminerCurculionidaeOrthochaetes insignis
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium globosum
leafpustuleaecia uredinia teliaPuccinialesPuccinia violae
leafstripeUrocystidalesUrocystis violae
leafvagrantEriophyidaeEpitrimerus violarius


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


To filter the table above, add a text to the search field (top right of the table).
To sort a column click on an arrow after the column name (both ascending and descending).
Sort multiple columns with Shift + click on the arrows.


The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 31.vii.2022