Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Ficus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
fruit borer Lonchaeidae Silba adipata
stem scale Pseudococcidae Planococcus ficus
stem scale Coccidae Eulecanium tiliae
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus lenticularis
fruit borer doubtful Tortricidae Cydia pomonella
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis
leaf vagrant Diptilomiopidae Asetadiptacus emiliae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurodicus floccissimus
stem scale Coccidae Saissetia oleae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes proletella
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes elevatus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia tabaci
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleuroclava aucubae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurocanthus spiniferus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurodicus dispersus
stem scale Coccidae Sphaerolecanium prunastri
leaf scale Coccidae Coccus hesperidum
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes conchiformis
stem vagrant Homotomidae Macrohomotoma gladiata
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus pulcher
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
fruit borer Aphelenchoididae Schistonchus caprifici
fruit gall Agaonidae Blastophaga psenes
fruit gall doubtful Agaonidae Eupristina verticillata
fruit gall Agaonidae Odontofroggatia galili
fruit gall Agaonidae Philotrypesis caricae
fruit gall Agaonidae Pleistodontes spec.
leaf gall Agaonidae Josephiella microcarpae
leaf gall Choreutidae Choreutis nemorana
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria ficus
leaf gall Phlaeothripidae Gynaikothrips ficorum
leaf miner Cecidomyiidae Horidiplosis ficifolii
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella ficulnea
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Cerotelium fici
leaf vagrant Diptilomiopidae Rhyncaphytoptus ficifoliae
leaf vagrant Homotomidae Homotoma ficus
stem gall Diaporthales Phomopsis cinerascens
predator Acarophenacidae Adactylidium gynaikothripsi
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum circumflexum
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 19.iii.2020