Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Frangula alnus

alder buckthorn

synonym: Frangula dodonei; Rhamnus frangula

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafhiddenPyralidaeAcrobasis legatea
leafhiddenPyralidaeAcrobasis legatea
leafvagrantadultCicadellidaeFieberiella bohemica
leafvagrantCicadellidaeZygina suavis
stemborerCurculionidaeLymantor aceris
stemborerCurculionidaeLymantor coryli
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborus dispar
leafvagrantTetranychidaePanonychus ulmi
leafgallunknown on Frangula alnus
leafvagrantMiridaeClosterotomus fulvomaculatus
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips brevicornis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeRhogogaster scalaris
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis unculana
leafhiddenGelechiidaeAristotelia baltica
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella rhamnella
leafhiddenTortricidaeDitula angustiorana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis apicella
flowerhiddenCosmopterigidaeSorhagenia rhamniella
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips crataegana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips xylosteana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis corylana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis heparana
stemgallHypocrealesNeonectria punicea
leafvagrantdoubtfulTortricidaeAcleris bergmanniana
fruitborerTortricidaeEupoecilia ambiguella
fruitborerTortricidaePhtheochroa sodaliana
leafvagrantEriophyidaeCalepitrimerus rhamni
stemborerCosmopterigidaeSorhagenia janiszewskae
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurolobus wunni
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAsterobemisia carpini
leafvagrantdoubtfulAphididaeAphis praeterita
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon stomoxiformis
stemborerPsilidaeChyliza leptogaster
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis zamorana
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia rhamni
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe divaricata
leafgallspring generationAphididaeAphis frangulae
leafgalldoubtfulEriophyidaeAequsomatus annulatus
leafgalldoubtfulTriozidaeTrichochermes walkeri
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix frangutella
leafminerBuprestidaeTrachys minutus
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora ahenella
leafminerGracillariidaeCalybites quadrisignella
leafminerdoubtfulNepticulidaeStigmella catharticella
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia coronata
leafvagrantEriophyidaePentamerus septemcarinatus
stemgallDiaspididaeChionaspis salicis
leafgallspring generationAphididaeAphis frangulae beccabungae
leafvagrantspring generationAphididaeAphis frangulae frangulae
leafgallAphididaeMacchiatiella rhamni
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis frangulae testacea


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 11.ii.2021