Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Rhamnus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Laparocerus aeneotinctus
stem vagrant Ortheziidae Orthezia urticae
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips gloriosus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips major
leaf vagrant Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips phyllophilus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips fuscipennis
unknown unknown Thripidae Kakothrips firmoides
systemic hidden Thripidae Firmothrips firmus
leaf predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips melaleucus
leaf bud hidden Thripidae Taeniothrips inconsequens
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips major
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips minutissimus
leaf vagrant Geometridae Phigalia pilosaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Cleora cinctaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Angerona prunaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Abraxas sylvata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Selenia lunularia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Biston betularia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Phigalia pilosaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lomographa temerata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ortaliella perspersata
leaf vagrant Pieridae Aporia crataegi
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Leiopus nebulosus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Saperda scalaris
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Stenostola ferrea
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Leiopus nebulosus
stem borer larva Cerambycidae Tetrops praeustus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Stenhomalus bicolor
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Ropalopus clavipes
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Alosterna tabacicolor
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Mesosa nebulosa
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Stenostola dubia
stem borer Cerambycidae Penichroa fasciata
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Clytus madoni
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Leiopus linnei
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Menesia bipunctata
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Chlorophorus varius
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Grammoptera ruficornis
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Grammoptera ruficornis
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Clytus rhamni
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Niphona picticornis
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Pogonocherus hispidus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Pogonocherus hispidulus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Stenurella nigra
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Glaphyra umbellatarum
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Purpuricenus globulicollis
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Gracilia minuta
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Clytus arietis
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Mesosa curculionoides
stem borer Cerambycidae Tetrops peterkai
stem borer larva Cerambycidae Tetrops praeustus
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae
scale Diaspididae Melanaspis inopinata
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Conistra rubiginosa
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus pyrenaeus
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Lasiocampa quercus
leaf hidden Tortricidae Epiphyas postvittana
leaf vagrant Nolidae Nola confusalis
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Pseudocercospora bacilligera
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta frangulae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria frangulae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria variegata
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta rhamni
stem kanker Nectriaceae Nectria cinnabarina
stem gall Nectriaceae Neonectria ditissima
root film Xylariaceae Dematophora necatrix
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia alaterni
leaf leaf spot Glomerellaceae Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta paliuri
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta jahniana
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria cathartica
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria rhamni
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria rhamnigena
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta rhamni
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta cathartici
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta rhamnicola
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta osteospora
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Pseudocercospora bacilligera
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Passalora rhamni
leaf leaf spot Dothideomycetes Asteromella vogelii
stem borer Cerambycidae Tetrops praetermitus
stem borer Cossidae Zeuzera pyrina
predator Anthocoridae Anthocoris nemoralis
leaf vagrant Coreidae Plinachtus imitator
predator Anthocoridae Orius minutus
predator Anthocoridae Orius niger
leaf predator Miridae Deraeocoris flavilinea
predator Miridae Deraeocoris lutescens
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthotylus marginalis
leaf vagrant Miridae Miris striatus
fruit vagrant Miridae Neolygus contaminatus
leaf predator Miridae Globiceps sphaegiformis
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris buxi
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Carpocoris purpureipennis
leaf vagrant doubtful Alydidae Megalotomus junceus
leaf vagrant Miridae Neolygus viridis
leaf vagrant Miridae Heterocordylus erythropthalmus
predator Anthocoridae Cardiastethus fasciiventris
fruit vagrant Coreidae Gonocerus acuteangulatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Apolygus rhamnicola
leaf scale Coccidae Lichtensia viburni
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus aurifer
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Siphoninus phillyreae
leaf vagrant Geometridae Triphosa tauteli
leaf vagrant Geometridae Cyclophora linearia
leaf vagrant Pieridae Gonepteryx farinosa
leaf vagrant Pieridae Gonepteryx cleobule
leaf vagrant Pieridae Gonepteryx eversi
leaf vagrant Pieridae Gonepteryx palmae
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes conchiformis
stem borer Cerambycidae Oberea pedemontana
stem borer Cerambycidae Oberea pedemontana
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Eugnorisma glareosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia thalassina
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lacanobia contigua
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Melanchra persicariae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Orthosia gothica
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Ammopolia witzenmanni
stem borer Cerambycidae Purpuricenus interscapillatus
leaf hidden Noctuidae Eupsilia transversa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Brachionycha nubeculosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lithophane socia
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Sideridis turbida
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Amphipyra pyramidea
leaf vagrant Erebidae Lymantria dispar
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Malacosoma neustria
leaf vagrant doubtful Noctuidae Acronicta strigosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta rumicis
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Rhagades pruni
leaf vagrant Geometridae Hemithea aestivaria
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euproctis similis
leaf vagrant rarely Noctuidae Diloba caeruleocephala
leaf vagrant Erebidae Orgyia antiqua
leaf vagrant Geometridae Peribatodes rhomboidaria
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euproctis similis
leaf vagrant Geometridae Crocallis tusciaria
leaf vagrant Erebidae Orgyia trigotephras
leaf vagrant Geometridae Alcis repandata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Hypomecis punctinalis
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ascotis selenaria
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Gastropacha quercifolia
leaf vagrant Saturniidae Saturnia pavonia
leaf vagrant Saturniidae Saturnia pavoniella
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lomographa bimaculata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Gnophos dumetata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Agriopis bajaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Crocallis elinguaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Selenia dentaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Selenia tetralunaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Odontopera bidentata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Biston betularia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lycia hirtaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Macaria alternata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia virgaureata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Gnophos sartata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Acasis viretata
leaf vagrant Erebidae Coscinia cribraria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Philereme transversata
flower vagrant Geometridae Chloroclystis v-ata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Itame vincularia
leaf vagrant Geometridae Dysstroma citrata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Triphosa dubitata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Triphosa sabaudiata
leaf hidden Geometridae Philereme vetulata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Chloroclysta siterata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Chloroclysta miata
leaf hidden Geometridae Philereme vetulata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Philereme transversata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Ectropis crepuscularia
leaf vagrant doubtful Lycaenidae Cupido argiades
leaf vagrant Geometridae Triphosa dubitata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia exiguata
leaf vagrant Pieridae Gonepteryx rhamni
leaf vagrant Pieridae Gonepteryx maderensis
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Callophrys rubi
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Satyrium spini
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Celastrina argiolus
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Callophrys rubi
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Celastrina argiolus
leaf vagrant Pieridae Gonepteryx cleopatra
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Aglaope infausta
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia manca
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus roscidus
stem borer doubtful Buprestidae Agrilus cyanescens
stem borer Buprestidae Acmaeodera simulans
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia cichorii
leaf vagrant adult Cicadellidae Allygus mixtus
leaf vagrant adult Cicadellidae Fieberiella bohemica
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zygina suavis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zygina rhamni
leaf vagrant Cixiidae Cixius nervosus
stem borer Curculionidae Lymantor aceris
stem borer doubtful Curculionidae Scolytus rugulosus
stem borer Curculionidae Lymantor coryli
stem borer Curculionidae Phloeotribus scarabaeoides
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborus dispar
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborus dispar
stem borer Curculionidae Scolytus multistriatus
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Panonychus ulmi
leaf gall unknown on Frangula alnus
leaf vagrant Miridae Closterotomus fulvomaculatus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Hercinothrips bicinctus
leaf vagrant Psyllidae Psylla exima
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips brevicornis
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Rhogogaster scalaris
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis coriacanus
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ancylis sparulana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips crataegana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ancylis unculana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ancylis obtusana
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Aristotelia baltica
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ditula angustiorana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ancylis apicella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ancylis apicella
flower hidden Cosmopterigidae Sorhagenia rhamniella
leaf hidden Cosmopterigidae Sorhagenia lophyrella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Rhopobota naevana
leaf vagrant Tortricidae Cacoecimorpha pronubana
leaf hidden Pyralidae Acrobasis romanella
leaf hidden Pyralidae Acrobasis legatea
leaf vagrant Psyllidae Cacopsylla rhamnicola
leaf hidden Tortricidae Eulia ministrana
leaf oviposition scar egg doubtful Tenthredinidae Eriocampa ovata
leaf hidden Tortricidae Choristoneura diversana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips crataegana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips xylosteana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis corylana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis heparana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis cerasana
stem gall Hypocreales Neonectria punicea
leaf hidden Tortricidae Exapate congelatella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris variegana
leaf hidden doubtful Tortricidae Acleris bergmanniana
fruit borer Tortricidae Phtheochroa sodaliana
fruit borer Tortricidae Eupoecilia ambiguella
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Calepitrimerus rhamni
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Tetra rhamni
unknown unknown Eriophyidae Eriophyes rhamni
stem borer Cosmopterigidae Sorhagenia janiszewskae
stem scale Coccidae Saissetia oleae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurolobus wunni
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Asterobemisia carpini
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurotrachelus rhamnicola
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia afer
leaf vagrant doubtful Aphididae Aphis praeterita
stem gall Diaspididae Chionaspis salicis
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes flava
leaf scale Coccidae Coccus hesperidum
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon stomoxiformis
stem borer Psilidae Chyliza leptogaster
leaf vagrant Psyllidae Cacopsylla myrthi
leaf vagrant Psyllidae Cacopsylla limbata
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pyrellicola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis zamorana
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis aurantii
fruit borer Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera kosarzewskella
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Wachtliella krumbholzi
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia borzi
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia rhamni
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe divaricata
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe friesei
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Aphis nasturtii
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis commensalis
leaf gall Aphididae Macchiatiella rhamni
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria rhamni
leaf gall Eriophyidae Floracarus atillai
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aequsomatus annulatus
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla alaterni
leaf gall Triozidae Trichochermes walkeri
leaf gall Triozidae Trioza kiefferi
leaf gall Triozidae Trioza marginepunctata
leaf gall Triozidae Trioza rhamni
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix alaternella
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix frangutella
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix rhamniella
leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys minutus
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora ahenella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora violacea
leaf miner Gelechiidae Microlechia rhamnifoliae
leaf miner Gracillariidae Calybites quadrisignella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella alaternella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella catharticella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella crenulatae
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pyrellicola
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella rhamnella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella rhamnophila
leaf miner Tortricidae Thiodia glandulosana
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia coronata
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia sesleriae
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia mesnieriana
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis mammulata
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Pentamerus septemcarinatus
stem gall Diaspididae Chionaspis salicis
inquiline Cecidomyiidae Dasineura frangulae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae beccabungae
leaf gall Aphididae Macchiatiella rhamni
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis frangulae testacea

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 26.i.2024