Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Rhamnus

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeRhogogaster scalaris
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis coriacanus
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis sparulana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips crataegana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis unculana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis obtusana
leafhiddenGelechiidaeAristotelia baltica
leafhiddenTortricidaeDitula angustiorana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis apicella
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis apicella
flowerhiddenCosmopterigidaeSorhagenia rhamniella
leafhiddenCosmopterigidaeSorhagenia lophyrella
leafhiddenTortricidaeRhopobota naevana
leafvagrantTortricidaeCacoecimorpha pronubana
leafhiddenPyralidaeAcrobasis romanella
leafhiddenPyralidaeAcrobasis legatea
leafvagrantPsyllidaeCacopsylla rhamnicola
leafvagrantThripidaeClosterotomus fulvomaculatus
leafhiddenTortricidaeEulia ministrana
leafoviposition scareggdoubtfulTenthredinidaeEriocampa ovata
leafhiddenTortricidaeChoristoneura diversana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips crataegana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips xylosteana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis corylana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis heparana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis cerasana
stemgallHypocrealesNeonectria punicea
leafhiddenTortricidaeExapate congelatella
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris variegana
leafhiddendoubtfulTortricidaeAcleris bergmanniana
fruitborerTortricidaePhtheochroa sodaliana
fruitborerTortricidaeEupoecilia ambiguella
leafvagrantEriophyidaeCalepitrimerus rhamni
leafvagrantEriophyidaeTetra rhamni
unknownunknownEriophyidaeEriophyes rhamni
stemborerCosmopterigidaeSorhagenia janiszewskae
stemscaleCoccidaeSaissetia oleae
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurolobus wunni
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAsterobemisia carpini
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurotrachelus rhamnicola
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia afer
leafvagrantdoubtfulAphididaeAphis praeterita
stemgallDiaspididaeChionaspis salicis
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes ulmi
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes flava
leafscaleCoccidaeCoccus hesperidum
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon stomoxiformis
stemborerPsilidaeChyliza leptogaster
leafvagrantPsyllidaeCacopsylla myrthi
leafvagrantPsyllidaeCacopsylla limbata
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella pyrellicola
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis zamorana
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis aurantii
fruitborerCecidomyiidaeLasioptera kosarzewskella
fruitgallCecidomyiidaeWachtliella krumbholzi
fruitgallCecidomyiidaeAsphondylia borzi
flowergallCecidomyiidaeContarinia rhamni
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe divaricata
leafdownErysiphalesErysiphe friesei
leafgallspring generationAphididaeAphis frangulae
leafgallspring generationAphididaeAphis nasturtii
leafgallAphididaeAphis commensalis
leafgallAphididaeMacchiatiella rhamni
leafgallEriophyidaeAceria rhamni
leafgallEriophyidaeFloracarus atillai
leafgallEriophyidaeAequsomatus annulatus
leafgallPsyllidaeCacopsylla alaterni
leafgallTriozidaeTrichochermes walkeri
leafgallTriozidaeTrioza kiefferi
leafgallTriozidaeTrioza marginepunctata
leafgallTriozidaeTrioza rhamni
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix alaternella
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix frangutella
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix rhamniella
leafminerBuprestidaeTrachys minutus
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora ahenella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora violacea
leafminerGelechiidaeMicrolechia rhamnifoliae
leafminerGracillariidaeCalybites quadrisignella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella alaternella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella catharticella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella crenulatae
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella pyrellicola
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella rhamnella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella rhamnophila
leafminerTortricidaeThiodia glandulosana
leafpustuleChytridialesSynchytrium aureum
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia coronata
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia sesleriae
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia mesnieriana
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis mammulata
leafvagrantEriophyidaePentamerus septemcarinatus
stemgallDiaspididaeChionaspis salicis
inquilineCecidomyiidaeDasineura frangulae
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafgallspring generationAphididaeAphis frangulae beccabungae
leafgallAphididaeMacchiatiella rhamni
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis frangulae testacea

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 17.iv.2020