Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Rhamnus alaternus

mediterranean buckthorn

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
flower predator Aeolothripidae Aeolothrips gloriosus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Thrips major
stem borer Cerambycidae Penichroa fasciata
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Lasiocampa quercus
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Pseudocercospora bacilligera
leaf vagrant Coreidae Plinachtus imitator
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus aurifer
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Siphoninus phillyreae
leaf vagrant Pieridae Gonepteryx farinosa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Ammopolia witzenmanni
leaf vagrant Erebidae Lymantria dispar
leaf vagrant Geometridae Triphosa dubitata
leaf vagrant Pieridae Gonepteryx rhamni
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Satyrium spini
leaf vagrant Lycaenidae Celastrina argiolus
leaf vagrant Pieridae Gonepteryx cleopatra
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia manca
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus roscidus
stem borer Curculionidae Phloeotribus scarabaeoides
stem borer Curculionidae Scolytus multistriatus
leaf hidden Cosmopterigidae Sorhagenia lophyrella
leaf hidden Pyralidae Acrobasis romanella
leaf hidden Pyralidae Acrobasis legatea
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurotrachelus rhamnicola
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia afer
leaf scale Coccidae Coccus hesperidum
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon stomoxiformis
leaf vagrant Psyllidae Cacopsylla myrthi
leaf vagrant Psyllidae Cacopsylla limbata
stem vagrant Psyllidae Cacopsylla alaterni
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis aurantii
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia borzi
leaf gall Aphididae Macchiatiella rhamni
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla alaterni
leaf gall Triozidae Trioza marginepunctata
leaf gall Triozidae Trioza kiefferi
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix alaternella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella alaternella
leaf miner doubtful Nepticulidae Stigmella rhamnella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella rhamnophila
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia coronata
leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia mesnieriana
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Aphis nasturtii
leaf vagrant spring generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae frangulae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 15.xi.2023