Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Rhamnus alaternus

mediterranean buckthorn

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotMycosphaerellaceaePseudocercospora bacilligera
leafvagrantCoreidaePlinachtus imitator
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus aurifer
leafscaleAleyrodidaeSiphoninus phillyreae
leafvagrantPieridaeGonepteryx farinosa
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAmmopolia witzenmanni
leafvagrantErebidaeLymantria dispar
leafvagrantGeometridaeTriphosa dubitata
leafvagrantPieridaeGonepteryx rhamni
leafvagrantLycaenidaeSatyrium spini
leafvagrantLycaenidaeCelastrina argiolus
leafvagrantPieridaeGonepteryx cleopatra
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia manca
stemborerBuprestidaeAgrilus roscidus
stemborerCurculionidaePhloeotribus scarabaeoides
stemborerCurculionidaeScolytus multistriatus
leafhiddenCosmopterigidaeSorhagenia lophyrella
leafhiddenPyralidaeAcrobasis romanella
leafhiddenPyralidaeAcrobasis legatea
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurotrachelus rhamnicola
leafscaleAleyrodidaeBemisia afer
leafscaleCoccidaeCoccus hesperidum
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon stomoxiformis
leafvagrantPsyllidaeCacopsylla myrthi
leafvagrantPsyllidaeCacopsylla limbata
stemvagrantPsyllidaeCacopsylla alaterni
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis aurantii
fruitgallCecidomyiidaeAsphondylia borzi
leafgallAphididaeMacchiatiella rhamni
leafgallspring generationAphididaeAphis frangulae
leafgallPsyllidaeCacopsylla alaterni
leafgallTriozidaeTrioza marginepunctata
leafgallTriozidaeTrioza kiefferi
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix alaternella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella alaternella
leafminerdoubtfulNepticulidaeStigmella rhamnella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella rhamnophila
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesPuccinia coronata
leafpustuleteliaPuccinialesPuccinia mesnieriana
leafgallspring generationAphididaeAphis nasturtii
leafvagrantspring generationAphididaeAphis frangulae frangulae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 3.ix.2022