Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Cotoneaster cotoneaster

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus

1b tentiform mine, > 1 cm => 2

1c small (max. 1 cm) tentiform or blotch mine => 8

1d blotch, > 1 cm, without an initial corridor => 15

1e corridor, > 1 cm, may be widened towards then end => 17

1f fleck mine => 22

1g galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a mine upper-surface, silvery => 3

2b mine lower-surface; yellow-green or brown => 4

3a fully developed mine silvery white, without black speckles: Phyllonorycter leucographella

3b fully developed mine dirty white, with many blackish speckles: Phyllonorycter corylifoliella

4a lower epidermis yellow green, with conspicuous folds => 5

4b lower epidermis grey brown, wrinkled => 7

5a mountain species: Phyllonorycter deschkai

5b lowland species => 6

6a folds of the mine fine, rather weak: Phyllonorycter mespilella

6b folds strong, sharp: Phyllonorycter sorbi

7a older larva in a leaf tip, rolled into a cone: Parornix anglicella

7b older larva under a folded leaf marging or a fold, in the middle under a leaf, covered with silk: Parornix scoticella

8a small drop- or pear-shaped blotch, for a great part filled with frass: Rhamphus oxyacanthae

8b shape different, or mine containing less frass => 9

9a very transparant corridor or blotch of 3 mm at most, often several in a leaf => 10

9b mine less transparant and/or larger; always one per leaf => 10

10a larva: head golden brown: Paraswammerdamia nebulella

10b head black with brown and white lines: Scythropia crataegella

11a blotch or tentiform mine => 12

11b gallery => 14

12a mine full depth (rarely on this hostplant): Parornix devoniella

12b mine upper-surface or lower-surface => 13

13a mountain species: Callisto pfaffenzelleri

13b lowland species: Callisto denticulella

14a mine strongly branched, without frass: Recurvaria nanella

14b mine unbranched, containing much frass: Bucculatrix bechsteinella

15a mine lower-surface: initial mines of Parornix anglicella

15b min upper-surface => 16

15c mine full depth: Lyonetia prunifoliella & L. padifoliella

16a mine silvery, elongated, positioned over a thick vein: initial mine of Phyllonorycter corylifoliella or Ph. leucographella

16b mine reddish brown, round, not associated with a vein; frass in concentric arcs: Leucoptera malifoliella

17a the gallery begins at an obvious scar, where the egg has been deposited within the leaf => 18

17b the gallery begins without a scar at an external, smooth and shining egg shell => 19

18a a gallery from start to end: Lyonetia clerkella.

18b mine ends in a large blotch: Lyonetia prunifoliella & L. padifoliella

19a frass in the first part of the corridor in a central line, further on coilded: Stigmella oxyacanthella

19b throughout the corridor part frass in a central line => 20

20a corridor abruptly widened into a blotch; larva hyaline => 21

20b corridor gradually widening, never becoming a real blotch; larva green: Stigmella magdalenae

21a larva: second half of June; abdominal segment 10 with 2 pairs of setae: Stigmella sorbi

21barvae in July and September-October; segment 10 with 3 pairs of setae: Stigmella mespilicola

22a case 8-11 mm; mouth angle 90°: Coleophora hemerobiella

22b case 6-7 mm, mouth angle 60°: Coleophora spinella (but see also C. coracipennella, C. prunifoliae, and C. serratella)

Not included in the key: Coleophora trigeminella; Phyllonorycter blancardella (probably not normally on this host plant).

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 18.xi.2023