organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
fruit borer larva Rhynchitidae Rhynchites bacchus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Siphoninus phillyreae
leaf miner Rhynchitidae Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
systemic scale Diaspididae Parlatoria oleae
leaf leaf spot Helotiales Diplocarpon mespili
leaf scale Coccidae Pulvinaria hydrangeae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
fruit borer Tephritidae Anomoia purmunda
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis pomi
leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes aroniae
leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes pyri
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora coracipennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora spinella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora trigeminella
leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus oxyacanthae
leaf miner Gelechiidae Recurvaria nanella
leaf miner rarely Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Callisto pfaffenzelleri
leaf miner rarely Gracillariidae Parornix devoniella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix scoticella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter corylifoliella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter deschkai
leaf miner rarely Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter leucographella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter mespilella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter sorbi
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera malifoliella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia prunifoliella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella hybnerella
leaf miner doubtful Nepticulidae Stigmella incognitella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella magdalenae
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella mespilicola
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella sorbi
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Scythropia crataegella
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Paraswammerdamia nebulella
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium clavariiforme
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium confusum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium fusisporum
leaf vagrant spring generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculus schlechtendali
stem gall summer generation Aphididae Eriosoma lanigerum
stem gall Eriophyidae Acalitus cotoneastri
stem gall Santalaceae Viscum album
unknown miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia padifoliella
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni
stem scale Coccidae Pulvinaria vitis
leaf vagrant Aphididae Chaetosiphon chaetosiphon
stem scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus aceris


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 5.iv.2019