Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Malus apple

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Malus by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus

1b small blotch, eventually with a circular excision => 2

1c tentiform mine => 3

1d primary blotch without preceding corridor or excision => 9

1e corridor from start to end (but may form a secondary blotch) => 16

1f corridor, widening into a primary blotch => 24

1g fleck mine => 27

1h galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a mining larvae in May-June; the excision is almost as large as the blotch itself: Incurvaria pectinea

2b mining larvae in July-August; the excision occupies but a part of the blotch: Incurvaria oehlmanniella

3a mine upper-surface => 4

3b mine lower-surface => 7

4a mine centered over a vein => 5

4b mine between two veins => 6

5a fully developed mine silvery-white, without dark speckles: Phyllonorycter leucographella

5b fully developed mine dirty white because of many dark speckles: Phyllonorycter corylifoliella

6a mine remains rather flat; silvery at first, laer mostly orange brown: Callisto denticulella

6b mine very strongly contracted, remains silvery: Parornix petiolella

7a mine epidermal, silvery, later mostly orange brown: Callisto denticulella

7b mine not epidermal; epidermis yellow-green => 8

8Phyllonorycter blancardella sensu lato”. Gregor & Patočka (2001a), and Patočka & Turčáni (2005a) present a key to the pupae of Ph. blancardella, cydoniella, gerasimovi, mespilella, and sorbi. It is pointless to reproduce that here, because Triberti (2007a) has added three, possibly in part common, species without an adequate description of the pupae or mines: Ph. anceps, hostis en pyrifoliella.

9a oviposition spot (mostly the leaf tip) covered by a shining black drop of hardened secretion: Trachys minutus

9b no such a black drop => 10

10a mine full depth => 11

10b mine upper-surface => 14

11a on the same or neighbouring (younger) leaves thread thin corridors, stuffed with frass; little frass in the blotch; most is expelled, some grains remain stuck in spinning below the mine: Lyonetia prunifoliella

11b not like this => 12

12a mine in May: Yponomeuta malinellus

12b mine in autumn => 13

13a larva with black head and brownish ; larvae later live free in a communal web: Scythropia crataegella

13b larva with brown head and a whitish ; larva later lives free under a folded leaf margin: Parornix scoticella

14a mine ca 5 mm, brown, often in numbers; frass in a thick plug: Rhamphus oxyacanthae

14b mine larger, not brown; frass not like this => 15

15a mine with a dark centre; frass in concentric circles: Leucoptera malifoliella

15b mine silvery, epidermal, often beginning as a narrow line over a vein, later widening: Phyllonorycter corylifoliella or Ph. leucographella (young mines)

15c mine pale green, sometimes rust-coloured, elongated (corridor): Phytomyza heringiana

16a at the start of the corridor a globular, shining egg shell => 17

16b corridor doesn’t start at a recognisable egg shell => 21

17a in the second half of the corridor frass coiled; larva green, September-October: Stigmella oxyacanthella

17b frass nowhere in coils; larva green or yellow => 18

18a mine small and compact, usually in a vein axil; corridor rather strongly widening; larva yellow: Stigmella incognitella

18b mine longer, less compact; corridor less strongly widening (sometimes there is a secondary blotch); larva green or yellow => 19

19a larva yellow: Stigmella malella

19b larva green => 20

20a larva: segment 9 spinulose: Stigmella magdalenae

20b larva: segment 9 not spinulose (not in Nederland or Belgium): Stigmella desperatella

21a mine > 3 cm; frass in a narrow central line; larval chamber more than 3 times as long as wide: Lyonetia clerkella

21b mine shorter, may be without frass; larval chamber less elongated => 22

22a mine upper-surface, sometimes interparenchymatous, yellow-greem or rust-coloured: Phytomyza heringiana

22b mine full depth, transparent (frass permitting) => 23

23a mine branched, without frass: Recurvaria nanella

23b mine unbranched, hook-shaped, in a vein axil, containing much frass: Bucculatrix bechsteinella

24a at the start of the corridor a globular, shining egg shell => 25

24b no egg shell visible: Lyonetia prunifoliella

25a corridor part not strongly contorted; frass in narrow central line: Stigmella sorbi

25b corridor part strongly contorted; frass in a broad central band => 26

26a frass in the blotch mainly in the oldest section; larva yellow, leaving the mine through a lower-surface exit slit, June-July: Bohemannia pulverosella

26b frass in the blotch distributed over its entire length; exit slit upper-surface; August-October: Ectoedemia atricollis

27a tubular silken case: Coleophora trigeminella

27b pistol case => 28

27c lobe case => 29

27d leaf case => 30

28a “handle” with earlike appendages: Coleophora currucipennella

28b no such appendages: Coleophora anatipenella

29a the leaf disks used to enlarge the case are cut out of the upper epidermis: Coleophora violacea

29b .. out of the lower epidermis: Coleophora potentillae

30a case decorated with large flaps: Coleophora siccifolia

30b case simple => 31

31a case > 8 mm: Coleophora hemerobiella

31b case smaller: youth cases of Coleophora hemerobiella, and: C. coracipennella, prunifoliae, serratella, spinella

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 18.xi.2023