Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Malus

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantGeometridaeErannis defoliaria
leafvagrantNymphalidaeNymphalis polychloros
leafvagrantPieridaeAporia crataegi
leafvagrantLycaenidaeCelastrina argiolus
leafvagrantGeometridaeMacaria alternata
leafvagrantLycaenidaeZizeeria knysna
leafvagrantPapilionidaeIphiclides podalirius
leafvagrantZygaenidaeAglaope infausta
stemborerTortricidaeGrapholita molesta
stemborerCossidaeCossus cossus
leafvagrantSphingidaeSphinx ligustri
leafvagrantSphingidaeAcherontia atropos
leafvagrantTingidaePhysatocheila smreczynskii
stemborerBuprestidaeDicerca alni
stemborerBuprestidaeAcmaeoderella flavofasciata
stemborerBuprestidaeAcmaeoderella adspersula
stemborerBuprestidaeChalcophorella fabricii
stemborerBuprestidaeScintillatrix gloriosa
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia fulgurans
stemborerBuprestidaeChrysobothris affinis
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia candens
stemborerBuprestidaeCapnodis tenebrionis
stemborerBuprestidaePerotis lugubris
stemborerBuprestidaeDicerca aenea
stemborerBuprestidaeCapnodis carbonaria
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia sponsa
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia plicata
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia scutellaris
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia salicis
stemborerBuprestidaePtosima undecimmaculata
stemborerBuprestidaeAgrilus roscidus
stemborerBuprestidaeAgrilus sinuatus
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia semicuprea
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia suzannae
leafvagrantCicadellidaeCicadella viridis
leafhiddenYponomeutidaeSwammerdamia pyrella
leafvagrantCicadellidaeFagocyba cruenta
leafvagrantRicaniidaeRicania hedenborgi
leafvagrantRicaniidaeRicania speculum
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEdwardsiana frustrator
leafvagrantCicadellidaeArboridia erecta
leafvagrantadultCicadellidaeFieberiella bohemica
leafvagrantCixiidaeCixius nervosus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeZygina discolor
leafvagrantadultCixiidaeTachycixius pilosus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEdwardsiana crataegi
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEdwardsiana rosae
leafvagrantCicadellidaeLedra aurita
leafvagrantadultCixiidaeReptalus quinquecostatus
leafvagrantCicadellidaeZygina flammigera
leafvagrantCicadellidaeFruticidia bisignata
leafvagrantCicadellidaeZygina schneideri
leafvagrantCicadellidaeKyboasca maligna
leafvagrantCicadellidaeOrientus ishidae
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypodendron domesticum
stemborerCurculionidaeScolytus mali
stemborerCurculionidaeHylesinus fraxini
stemborerCurculionidaeScolytus rugulosus
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborinus saxesenii
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborus dispar
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia ulmophila
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia praetiosa
leafvagrantTetranychidaePanonychus citri
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia angustisetis
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia rubrioculus
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia vasiljevi
stemscalePseudococcidaeCoccura comari
leafvagrantTetranychidaeEotetranychus pruni
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis ruficornis
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis cerasi
leafvagrantTetranychidaeEotetranychus uncatus
leafvagrantTetranychidaeTetranychus viennensis
unknownunknownPhlaeothripidaeHaplothrips reuteri
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips meridionalis
leafvagrantThripidaeThrips fuscipennis
leafvagrantTetranychidaeEotetranychus tiliarium
leafvagrantadultChrysomelidaeLuperus xanthopoda
stemscaleCoccidaeParthenolecanium persicae
leaf budhiddenThripidaeTaeniothrips inconsequens
unknownunknownRhynchitidaeRhynchites giganteus
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis barbicornis
leafleaf spotPleosporalesDidymella pomorum
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeCaliroa cerasi
leafvagrantCimbicidaeCimbex quadrimaculatus
stemborerCephidaeJanus compressus
leafhiddenTenthredinidaePamphilius sylvaticus
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips flavus
leafhiddenPeleopodidaeCarcina quercana
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDiurnea fagella
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis coriacanus
stemscaleEriococcidaeAcanthococcus aceris
stemscaleCoccidaeSphaerolecanium prunastri
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis selenana
leafhiddenYpsolophidaeYpsolopha asperella
stemscaleDiaspididaeDiaspidiotus perniciosus
leafhiddenTortricidaeHedya pruniana
leafhiddenTortricidaeEudemis porphyrana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis tineana
leafhiddenTortricidaeEpinotia signatana
leafhiddenTortricidaeHedya nubiferana
leafvagrantYpsolophidaeYpsolopha scabrella
leafvagrantYpsolophidaeYpsolopha horridella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeRecurvaria leucatella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeTeleiodes vulgella
leafhiddenTortricidaeRhopobota naevana
leafhiddenTortricidaeSpilonota ocellana
leafgallAphididaeDysaphis affinis
fruitborerTortricidaePammene argyrana
fruitborerTortricidaePammene rhediella
stemgallHelotialesNeofabraea perennans
stemgallHelotialesNeofabraea malicorticis
stemgallDiaporthalesDiaporthe perniciosa
stemoviposition scareggMembracidaeStictocephala bisonia
leafhiddenTortricidaeDitula angustiorana
stemoviposition scareggMembracidaeStictocephala bisonia
leafhiddenTortricidaeClepsis consimilana
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora maesta
leafoviposition scardoubtfulTenthredinidaePristiphora abbreviata
leafhiddenTortricidaeSyndemis musculana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips xylosteana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips rosana
leafhiddenTortricidaeChoristoneura hebenstreitella
leafhiddenTortricidaeChoristoneura lafauryana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips podana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips crataegana
leafvagrantTingidaeStephanitis pyri
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis cinnamomeana
leafhiddenTortricidaeChoristoneura diversana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis cerasana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis heparana
leafmineryounger larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
leafhiddenolder larvaTortricidaeCnephasia asseclana
leafhiddenTortricidaeCnephasia incertana
leafhiddenTortricidaeSparganothis pilleriana
leafhiddenTortricidaePtycholoma lecheana
fruitborermainTortricidaeCydia pomonella
fruitborerTortricidaeGrapholita lobarzewskii
stemscaleDiaspididaeDiaspidiotus ostreaeformis
leafhiddenTortricidaeAdoxophyes orana
stemgallHypocrealesNeonectria ditissima
leafhiddenTortricidaeNeosphaleroptera nubilana
leafhiddenTortricidaeExapate congelatella
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris fimbriana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris cristana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris lipsiana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris rhombana
stemborerTortricidaeEnarmonia formosana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris holmiana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris variegana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris aspersana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArgyrotaenia ljungiana
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeCenopalpus ruber
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeCenopalpus pritchardi
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeCenopalpus mespili
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus obovatus
systemicvagrantTenuipalpidaeCenopalpus lanceolatisetae
leafvagrantDiptilomiopidaeRhinotergum schestovici
stemborerspring generationrarelyGelechiidaeAnarsia lineatella
fruitborersummer generationGelechiidaeAnarsia lineatella
leafvagrantChoreutidaeChoreutis pariana
leafgalllarvaRhynchitidaeByctiscus betulae
stemborerlarvaRhynchitidaeInvolvulus cupreus
stemborerlarvaRhynchitidaeRhynchites caeruleus
fruitborerlarvararelyRhynchitidaeRhynchites auratus
fruitborerlarvaRhynchitidaeRhynchites bacchus
fruitborerlarvaRhynchitidaeTatianaerhynchites aequatus
stemborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia ivella
fruitborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia conjugella
leafscaleAleyrodidaeSiphoninus phillyreae
leafminerRhynchitidaeNeocoenorrhinus pauxillus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleurocanthus spiniferus
leafvagrantspring generationdoubtfulAphididaeRhopalosiphum nymphaeae
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella stettinensis
leafscaleCoccidaePulvinaria hydrangeae
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes ulmi
systemicscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria oleae
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon codeti
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon vespiformis
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon myopaeformis
rootgalldoubtfulAphididaeAploneura ampelina
leafgallPsyllidaeCacopsylla crataegi
stemscaleCoccidaePulvinaria regalis
stemscaleCoccidaePulvinaria vitis
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeCenopalpus pulcher
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii
fruitborerTephritidaeAnomoia purmunda
fruitgallTenthredinidaeHoplocampa testudinea
fruitpustuleHelotialesMonilinia fructigena
flowerborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia curvella
flowergallrarelyCurculionidaeAnthonomus piri
flowergallCurculionidaeAnthonomus pomorum
leafdownErysiphalesPhyllactinia mali
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera leucotricha
leafleaf spotVenturialesVenturia inaequalis
leafgallAphididaeAphis pomi
leafgallspring generationAphididaeDysaphis brancoi
leafgallspring generationAphididaeDysaphis chaerophylli
leafgallspring generationmainAphididaeDysaphis plantaginea
leafgallspring generationAphididaeDysaphis radicola
leafgallspring generationAphididaeAllocotaphis quaestionis
leafgallAphididaeDysaphis devecta
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura mali
leafgallEriophyidaeEpitrimerus malimarginemtorquens
leafgallEriophyidaeEriophyes mali
leafgalldoubtfulEriophyidaePhyllocoptes goniothorax
leafgallEriophyidaePhyllocoptes malinus
leafgallPsyllidaeCacopsylla mali
leafgallPsyllidaeCacopsylla melanoneura
leafgallPsyllidaeCacopsylla picta
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza heringiana
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix bechsteinella
leafminerBuprestidaeTrachys minutus
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora anatipenella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora coracipennella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora currucipennella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora hemerobiella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora potentillae
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora prunifoliae
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora serratella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora siccifolia
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora spinella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora trigeminella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora violacea
leafminerCurculionidaeRhamphus oxyacanthae
leafminerGelechiidaeRecurvaria nanella
leafminerGracillariidaeCallisto denticulella
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix petiolella
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix scoticella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter anceps
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter blancardella
leafminerrarelyGracillariidaePhyllonorycter cerasicolella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter corylifoliella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter gerasimowi
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter hostis
leafminerrarelyGracillariidaePhyllonorycter leucographella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter mespilella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter pyrifoliella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter sorbi
leafminerIncurvariidaeIncurvaria oehlmanniella
leafminerIncurvariidaeIncurvaria pectinea
leafminerLyonetiidaeLeucoptera malifoliella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLyonetia clerkella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLyonetia prunifoliella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella desperatella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella incognitella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella magdalenae
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella malella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella oxyacanthella
leafminerrarelyNepticulidaeStigmella plagicolella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella sorbi
leafminerNepticulidaeBohemannia pulverosella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia atricollis
leafminerYponomeutidaeScythropia crataegella
leafminerYponomeutidaeYponomeuta malinellus
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesGymnosporangium clavariiforme
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesGymnosporangium tremelloides
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesOchropsora ariae
leafvagrantspring generationmainAphididaeRhopalosiphum oxyacanthae
leafvagrantspring generationAphididaeDysaphis anthrisci
leafvagrantspring generationAphididaeOvatus crataegarius
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantDiptilomiopidaeDiptacus gigantorhynchus
leafvagrantEriophyidaeCalepitrimerus baileyi
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculus schlechtendali
stemborerAgromyzidaePhytobia carbonaria
stemborerCecidomyiidaeResseliella oculiperda
stemgallsummer generationAphididaeEriosoma lanigerum
stemgallDiaspididaeChionaspis salicis
stemgallDiaspididaeEpidiaspis leperii
stemgallSantalaceaeViscum album
stemminerElachistidaeBlastodacna atra
predatorCecidomyiidaeArthrocnodax mali
predatorCecidomyiidaeArthrocnodax wissmanni
inquilineCecidomyiidaeMacrolabis mali
root collarvagrantspring generationAphididaeDysaphis anthrisci
stemscaleCoccidaeParthenolecanium corni
stemscaleCoccidaeEulecanium tiliae
stemscaleCoccidaePalaeolecanium bituberculatum
stemscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus aceris
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis spiraecola
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis nasturtii

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 6.v.2021