Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Malus domestica

apple

synonym: Malus paradisiaca, sylvestris subp. mitis; Pirus, Pyrus, paradisiaca, malus

According to the Euro+Med PlantBase (2019), the correct name of the common apple is: Malus pumila; this is not followed here.

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafleaf spotDothideomycetesAsteromella mali
leafleaf spotGlomerellaceaeColletotrichum gloeosporioides
predatorEulophidaeChrysocharis pubicornis
predatorEulophidaeChrysocharis pubens
predatorEulophidaeAchrysocharoides atys
fruitvagrantdoubtfulLygaeidaeMetopoplax ditomoides
stemborerCossidaeZeuzera pyrina
leafpredatorMiridaePhytocoris pini
leafvagrantPentatomidaeHalyomorpha halys
stempredatorAnthocoridaeXylocoridea brevipennis
leafvagrantMiridaePsallus punctulatus
leafvagrantPentatomidaePentatoma rufipes
predatorMiridaeIsometopus intrusus
predatorAnthocoridaeOrius niger
leafpredatorMiridaeHeterocordylus genistae
predatorMiridaePilophorus perplexus
seedsvagrantLygaeidaeMegalonotus praetextatus
predatorMiridaeDeraeocoris trifasciatus
leafvagrantMiridaePhytocoris hirsutulus
leafpredatorMiridaePhytocoris reuteri
fruitvagrantPyrrhocoridaePyrrhocoris apterus
leafvagrantRicaniidaeRicania speculum
leafvagrantMiridaeLygocoris rugicollis
leafvagrantMiridaeDionconotus cruentatus
leafvagrantMiridaeDionconotus neglectus
leafvagrantMiridaePhytocoris longipennis
leafvagrantMiridaePhytocoris irroratus
predatorAnthocoridaeAnthocoris nemoralis
leafvagrantMiridaePsallus ambiguus
leafvagrantPentatomidaeDolycoris baccarum
leafvagrantPentatomidaeMustha spinosula
stemvagrantPentatomidaePalomena prasina
flowervagrantPentatomidaePiezodorus lituratus
leafvagrantPentatomidaeRhaphigaster nebulosa
leafvagrantPentatomidaeEurydema ornata
leafvagrantPentatomidaePeribalus strictus
leafvagrantPentatomidaeApodiphus integriceps
leafvagrantPentatomidaeMustha longispinis
predatorMiridaeDeraeocoris lutescens
leafvagrantMiridaeOrthotylus marginalis
leafvagrantMiridaeLygocoris pabulinus
predatorMiridaeDeraeocoris olivaceus
leafvagrantMiridaePhytocoris tiliae
leafvagrantMiridaeLygus rugulipennis
leafvagrantMiridaeLygus pratensis
leafpredatorMiridaeMalacocoris chlorizans
leafpredatorMiridaeBlepharidopterus angulatus
leafpredatorMiridaeCampylomma verbasci
leafvagrantrarelyMiridaePsallus variabilis
leafvagrantrarelyMiridaePsallus mollis
leafvagrantrarelyMiridaePhylus melanocephalus
predatorAnthocoridaeOrius minutus
predatorAnthocoridaeAnthocoris confusus
predatorAnthocoridaeAnthocoris nemorum
leafvagrantMiridaeHeterotoma merioptera
predatorMiridaeHeterotoma planicornis
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaePolydrusus mollis
predatorMiridaeAtractotomus mali
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus meridionalis
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaePhyllobius viridicollis
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaePolydrusus inustus
leafscaleAleyrodidaeSiphoninus phillyreae
leafscalePseudococcidaePseudococcus comstocki
leafvagrantErebidaeHyphantria cunea
leafhiddenCrambidaeHydriris ornatalis
scaleDiaspididaeChrysomphalus dictyospermi
stemboreradultBostrichidaeSchistoceros bimaculatus
scaleDiaspididaeDiaspidiotus pyri
leafvagrantNoctuidaeLacanobia suasa
stemscaleCoccidaeCeroplastes japonicus
leafvagrantNoctuidaeOrthosia cruda
leafhiddenNoctuidaeEupsilia transversa
leafvagrantNoctuidaeConistra vaccinii
leafvagrantNoctuidaeConistra rubiginosa
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAsteroscopus sphinx
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAllophyes oxyacanthae
leafhiddenTortricidaeEpiphyas postvittana
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAmphipyra pyramidea
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAmphipyra perflua
leafvagrantNoctuidaeCosmia pyralina
leafvagrantNoctuidaeCosmia trapezina
leafvagrantNoctuidaeAcronicta tridens
leafvagrantErebidaeLymantria dispar
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips rosana
leafvagrantNoctuidaeTrichosea ludifica
leafvagrantNoctuidaeColocasia coryli
leafvagrantNoctuidaeDiloba caeruleocephala
leafvagrantErebidaeOrgyia antiqua
leafvagrantErebidaeCalliteara pudibunda
leafvagrantErebidaeEuproctis similis
leafvagrantErebidaeLymantria monacha
leafvagrantErebidaeEuproctis chrysorrhoea
leafvagrantNolidaeNola cucullatella
leafvagrantGeometridaePeribatodes ilicaria
leafvagrantErebidaeArctia caja
leafvagrantGeometridaeCampaea margaritaria
leafvagrantDrepanidaeCilix glaucata
leafvagrantLasiocampidaePoecilocampa populi
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeMalacosoma neustria
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeMacrothylacia rubi
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeGastropacha quercifolia
leafvagrantSaturniidaeSaturnia pavonia
leafvagrantSaturniidaeAglia tau
leafvagrantSphingidaeSmerinthus ocellata
leafvagrantGeometridaeOdontopera bidentata
leafvagrantGeometridaeColotois pennaria
leafvagrantErebidaeSpilosoma lubricipeda
leafvagrantGeometridaeErannis defoliaria
leafvagrantGeometridaePhigalia pilosaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeApocheima hispidaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeAgriopis aurantiaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeAgriopis marginaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeAgriopis bajaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeLycia hirtaria
leafvagrantGeometridaeLycia pomonaria
leafhiddenCrambidaeLoxostege sticticalis
leafvagrantGeometridaeEctropis crepuscularia
leafvagrantGeometridaeChloroclysta siterata
leafhiddenGeometridaePasiphila rectangulata
leafvagrantGeometridaePlemyria rubiginata
leafvagrantGeometridaeOperophtera brumata
leafvagrantGeometridaeEupithecia insigniata
leafvagrantLycaenidaeCelastrina argiolus
leafvagrantNymphalidaeNymphalis polychloros
leafvagrantPieridaeAporia crataegi
leafvagrantZygaenidaeAglaope infausta
leafvagrantPapilionidaeIphiclides podalirius
stemborerTortricidaeGrapholita molesta
stemborerCossidaeCossus cossus
leafvagrantSphingidaeSphinx ligustri
leafvagrantSphingidaeAcherontia atropos
stemborerBuprestidaeDicerca alni
stemborerBuprestidaeAcmaeoderella adspersula
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia sponsa
stemborerBuprestidaePtosima undecimmaculata
stemborerBuprestidaeCapnodis tenebrionis
stemborerBuprestidaePerotis lugubris
stemborerBuprestidaeDicerca aenea
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia salicis
stemborerBuprestidaeAgrilus roscidus
stemborerBuprestidaeAgrilus sinuatus
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia fulgurans
stemborerBuprestidaeChrysobothris affinis
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia semicuprea
stemborerBuprestidaeAnthaxia suzannae
leafvagrantCicadellidaeCicadella viridis
leafhiddenYponomeutidaeSwammerdamia pyrella
leafvagrantadultCicadellidaeFieberiella bohemica
leafvagrantCicadellidaeZygina discolor
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEdwardsiana crataegi
fruitborerDrosophilidaeChymomyza amoena
leafvagrantCicadellidaeEdwardsiana rosae
leafvagrantCicadellidaeLedra aurita
leafvagrantCicadellidaeOrientus ishidae
stemborerCurculionidaeTrypodendron domesticum
stemborerCurculionidaeScolytus mali
stemborerCurculionidaeHylesinus fraxini
stemborerCurculionidaeScolytus rugulosus
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborinus saxesenii
stemborerCurculionidaeXyleborus dispar
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia rubrioculus
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia praetiosa
leafvagrantTetranychidaePanonychus citri
leafvagrantTetranychidaeEotetranychus pruni
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia angustisetis
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia rubrioculus
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia vasiljevi
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis ruficornis
stemborerCurculionidaeMagdalis cerasi
leafvagrantTetranychidaeEotetranychus uncatus
unknownunknownPhlaeothripidaeHaplothrips reuteri
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips meridionalis
leafvagrantThripidaeThrips fuscipennis
leafleaf spotPleosporalesDidymella pomorum
flowerhiddenThripidaeThrips flavus
leafhiddenPeleopodidaeCarcina quercana
leafhiddenChimabachidaeDiurnea fagella
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis selenana
leafhiddenYpsolophidaeYpsolopha asperella
stemscaleDiaspididaeDiaspidiotus perniciosus
leafhiddenTortricidaeHedya pruniana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAncylis tineana
leafhiddenTortricidaeHedya nubiferana
leafvagrantYpsolophidaeYpsolopha scabrella
leafhiddenPyralidaeAcrobasis advenella
leafhiddenGelechiidaeRecurvaria leucatella
leafhiddenTortricidaeRhopobota naevana
leafhiddenTortricidaeSpilonota ocellana
leafgallAphididaeDysaphis affinis
fruitborerTortricidaePammene argyrana
fruitborerTortricidaePammene rhediella
stemgallDiaporthalesDiaporthe perniciosa
stemoviposition scareggMembracidaeStictocephala bisonia
leafvagrantTenthredinidaePristiphora maesta
leafhiddenTortricidaeChoristoneura lafauryana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips podana
leafhiddenTortricidaeArchips crataegana
leafvagrantTingidaeStephanitis pyri
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis cinnamomeana
leafhiddenTortricidaeChoristoneura diversana
leafhiddenTortricidaePandemis heparana
stemscaleDiaspididaeDiaspidiotus ostreaeformis
fruitborermainTortricidaeCydia pomonella
fruitborerTortricidaeGrapholita lobarzewskii
leafhiddenTortricidaeNeosphaleroptera nubilana
stemborerTortricidaeEnarmonia formosana
leafvagrantTortricidaeAcleris holmiana
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris variegana
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeCenopalpus pritchardi
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeCenopalpus mespili
leafvagrantTenuipalpidaeBrevipalpus obovatus
systemicvagrantTenuipalpidaeCenopalpus lanceolatisetae
leafvagrantDiptilomiopidaeRhinotergum schestovici
stemborerspring generationrarelyGelechiidaeAnarsia lineatella
fruitborersummer generationGelechiidaeAnarsia lineatella
leafvagrantChoreutidaeChoreutis pariana
stemminerElachistidaeBlastodacna atra
stemgallDiaspididaeChionaspis salicis
leafdownErysiphalesPhyllactinia mali
stemborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia ivella
fruitborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia conjugella
leafminerRhynchitidaeNeocoenorrhinus pauxillus
leafvagrantspring generationdoubtfulAphididaeRhopalosiphum nymphaeae
stemscaleDiaspididaeLepidosaphes ulmi
stemscaleCoccidaePalaeolecanium bituberculatum
stemscaleCoccidaeEulecanium tiliae
systemicscaleDiaspididaeParlatoria oleae
stemscaleDiaspididaeEpidiaspis leperii
leafgalldoubtfulEriophyidaeEriophyes pyri
stemborerSesiidaeSynanthedon myopaeformis
leafgallPsyllidaeCacopsylla crataegi
leafgallspring generationAphididaeDysaphis chaerophylli
stemvagrantAphididaeAphis craccivora
leafvagrantsummer generationAphididaeAphis fabae
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii
fruitgallTenthredinidaeHoplocampa testudinea
fruitpustuleHelotialesMonilinia fructigena
flowerborerYponomeutidaeArgyresthia curvella
flowergallCurculionidaeAnthonomus pomorum
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera leucotricha
leafleaf spotVenturialesVenturia inaequalis
leafgallAphididaeAphis pomi
leafgallspring generationAphididaeDysaphis radicola
leafgallCecidomyiidaeDasineura mali
leafgallEriophyidaeEpitrimerus malimarginemtorquens
leafgallEriophyidaeEriophyes mali
leafgallEriophyidaePhyllocoptes malinus
leafgallPsyllidaeCacopsylla mali
leafgallPsyllidaeCacopsylla melanoneura
leafgallPsyllidaeCacopsylla picta
leafminerAgromyzidaePhytomyza heringiana
leafminerBucculatricidaeBucculatrix bechsteinella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora hemerobiella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora prunifoliae
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora siccifolia
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora serratella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora spinella
leafminerGelechiidaeRecurvaria nanella
leafminerGracillariidaeCallisto denticulella
leafminerGracillariidaeParornix petiolella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter blancardella
leafminerrarelyGracillariidaePhyllonorycter cerasicolella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter corylifoliella
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter gerasimowi
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter hostis
leafminerGracillariidaePhyllonorycter mespilella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLeucoptera malifoliella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLyonetia clerkella
leafminerLyonetiidaeLyonetia prunifoliella
leafminerNepticulidaeBohemannia pulverosella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia atricollis
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella desperatella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella incognitella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella malella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella oxyacanthella
leafminerrarelyNepticulidaeStigmella plagicolella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella sorbi
leafminerYponomeutidaeScythropia crataegella
leafminerYponomeutidaeYponomeuta malinellus
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesGymnosporangium clavariiforme
leafpustuleaeciaPuccinialesGymnosporangium tremelloides
leafpustuleuredinia teliaPuccinialesOchropsora ariae
leafvagrantspring generationmainAphididaeRhopalosiphum oxyacanthae
leafvagrantDiptilomiopidaeDiptacus gigantorhynchus
leafvagrantEriophyidaeAculus schlechtendali
leafvagrantEriophyidaeCalepitrimerus baileyi
stemborerCecidomyiidaeResseliella oculiperda
stemscaleCoccidaeParthenolecanium corni
root collarvagrantspring generationAphididaeDysaphis anthrisci
leafgallAphididaeDysaphis devecta
leafgallspring generationAphididaeAllocotaphis quaestionis
leafgallspring generationmainAphididaeDysaphis plantaginea
leafgallspring generationAphididaeDysaphis brancoi
stemscaleCoccidaeEulecanium tiliae
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis spiraecola
stemscalePseudococcidaePhenacoccus aceris
stemgallsummer generationAphididaeEriosoma lanigerum

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 9.viii.2022