Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Malus sylvestris

crab apple

synonym: Malus acerba, communis & subsp. sylvestris, kirghisorum; Pirus acerba, malus var. silvestris; Pyrus sylvestris

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf bud hidden Thripidae Taeniothrips inconsequens
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Cilix asiatica
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia plicata
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Prionus coriarius
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Pogonocherus hispidus
stem borer larva Cerambycidae Tetrops praeustus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Glaphyra umbellatarum
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Ropalopus macropus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Isotomus speciosus
dead wood borer Cerambycidae Niphona picticornis
stem borer Cerambycidae Cerambyx scopolii
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Tetranychus canadensis
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Eotetranychus coryli
leaf vagrant Tingidae Monosteira unicostata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Apocheima hispidaria
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Conistra rubiginea
unknown scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus kaussarii
unknown scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus marani
systemic scale Diaspididae Parlatoria oleae
leaf leaf spot Dothideomycetes incertae sedis Asteromella pomi
stem pustule Didymellaceae Didymella macrostoma
root film Xylariaceae Dematophora necatrix
leaf vagrant Miridae Orthotylus tenellus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Apodiphus integriceps
leaf vagrant Thripidae Retithrips syriacus
leaf leaf spot Phyllachorales Polystigma rubrum
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Diloba caeruleocephala
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Smerinthus ocellata
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Cilix glaucata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Odontopera bidentata
leaf hidden Geometridae Pasiphila rectangulata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia exiguata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia insigniata
stem borer Tortricidae Grapholita molesta
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia candens
leaf vagrant adult Cixiidae Tachycixius pilosus
stem borer Curculionidae Scolytus rugulosus
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia rubrioculus
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia ulmophila
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia vasiljevi
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Panonychus citri
fruit gall Tenthredinidae Hoplocampa testudinea
leaf hidden Peleopodidae Carcina quercana
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Epinotia signatana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Hedya nubiferana
leaf vagrant Ypsolophidae Ypsolopha horridella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Recurvaria leucatella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Teleiodes vulgella
stem gall Diaporthales Diaporthe perniciosa
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pristiphora maesta
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis consimilana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Adoxophyes orana
stem gall Hypocreales Neonectria ditissima
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris cristana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris lipsiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris aspersana
systemic vagrant Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus lanceolatisetae
stem borer Yponomeutidae Argyresthia ivella
leaf vagrant spring generation doubtful Aphididae Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
leaf gall Aphididae Dysaphis devecta
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Dysaphis plantaginea
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Dysaphis radicola
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella stettinensis
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla melanoneura
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
flower borer Yponomeutidae Argyresthia curvella
flower gall Curculionidae Anthonomus pomorum
leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia mali
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera leucotricha
leaf leaf spot Venturiales Venturia inaequalis
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis pomi
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura mali
leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus malimarginemtorquens
leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes mali
leaf gall doubtful Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes goniothorax
leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes malinus
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla mali
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla picta
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza heringiana
leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys minutus
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora anatipenella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora coracipennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora potentillae
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora trigeminella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora violacea
leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus oxyacanthae
leaf miner Gelechiidae Recurvaria nanella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix petiolella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix scoticella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter corylifoliella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter sorbi
leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria oehlmanniella
leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria pectinea
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Bohemannia pulverosella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia atricollis
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella desperatella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella incognitella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella magdalenae
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella malella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Yponomeuta malinellus
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium clavariiforme
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium tremelloides
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Ochropsora ariae
leaf vagrant spring generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae
leaf vagrant Diptilomiopidae Diptacus gigantorhynchus
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculus schlechtendali
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Calepitrimerus baileyi
stem gall summer generation Aphididae Eriosoma lanigerum
root collar vagrant spring generation Aphididae Dysaphis anthrisci
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis nasturtii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 24.ix.2023