organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurocanthus spiniferus
leaf scale Coccidae Pulvinaria hydrangeae
leaf gall Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus spinosus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
fruit borer Tephritidae Anomoia purmunda
leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia mali
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera clandestina
leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria pyracanthi
leaf gall doubtful Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes goniothorax
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter leucographella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium amelanchieris
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium confusum
stem gall summer generation Aphididae Eriosoma lanigerum
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis pomi


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


mod 16.ii.2019