Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Pyrus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
unknown scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus marani
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora coracipennella
leaf vagrant Geometridae Nychiodes obscuraria
stem gall Elachistidae Blastodacna libanotica
stem borer Prodoxidae Lampronia aeripennella
leaf vagrant spring generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae
systemic film Peronosporaceae Phytophthora citrophthora
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Mycosphaerella pyri
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Mycosphaerella pyri
leaf leaf spot Botryosphaeriaceae Macrophomina phaseolina
systemic film Peronosporaceae Phytophthora cactorum
stem kanker Rhytismataceae Phacidiopycnis pyri
stem kanker Dermateaceae Pezicula malicorticis
root film Plectosphaerellaceae Verticillium albo-atrum
root film Plectosphaerellaceae Verticillium dahliae
leaf bud down Botryosphaeriaceae Diplodia griffonii
stem kanker Botryosphaeriaceae Botryosphaeria quercuum
leaf leaf spot Glomerellaceae Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
leaf leaf spot Drepanopezizaceae Diplocarpon mespili
leaf leaf spot Sporocadaceae Pestalotiopsis breviseta
stem kanker Sporocadaceae Seimatosporium lichenicola
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta pyricola
leaf leaf spot Camarosporiaceae Camarosporium pyricola
leaf leaf spot Pleosporales incertae sedis Phoma exigua var. exigua
fruit leaf spot Leptosphaeriaceae Neoleptosphaeria rubefaciens
fruit down Sclerotiniaceae Monilinia laxa
leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae Venturia inaequalis
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Alternaria tenuissima
stem kanker Dermateaceae Pezicula corticola
stem kanker Dermateaceae Cryptosporiopsis corticola
leaf bud Camarosporiaceae Camarosporium karstenii
leaf leaf spot Elsinoaceae Elsinoë pyri
stem leaf spot Pilobolaceae Sacidium cystotricha
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Mycosphaerella pyri
stem kanker Nectriaceae Thyronectria coryli
leaf leaf spot Sclerotiniaceae Monilia foliicola
root film Xylariaceae Dematophora necatrix
stem kanker Diaporthales Diaporthe eres
stem kanker Nectriaceae Nectria cinnabarina
leaf leaf spot Dothideomycetes Asteromella pyricola
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Amphitetranychus viennensis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Notocelia cynosbatella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Athrips rancidella
stem borer Cossidae Zeuzera pyrina
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Pentatoma rufipes
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Polydrusus bardus
leaf vagrant Miridae Miris striatus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Halyomorpha halys
leaf predator Miridae Phytocoris reuteri
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus lederi
leaf predator Miridae Deraeocoris flavilinea
predator Anthocoridae Anthocoris nemoralis
predator Anthocoridae Anthocoris nemorum
predator Anthocoridae Orius minutus
predator Anthocoridae Orius niger
predator Miridae Atractotomus mali
leaf predator Miridae Deraeocoris ruber
predator Miridae Deraeocoris lutescens
leaf vagrant Miridae Mimocoris coarctatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Dionconotus cruentatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris varipes
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris irroratus
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris longipennis
root collar vagrant Cydnidae Ochetostethus nanus
leaf vagrant Miridae Lepidargyrus pollinosus
leaf vagrant Miridae Mimocoris rugicollis
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris pilifer
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris tiliae
leaf vagrant Miridae Closterotomus picturatus
leaf vagrant Miridae Saundersiella hirta
predator Anthocoridae Cardiastethus fasciiventris
leaf vagrant Miridae Psallus ambiguus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Dolycoris baccarum
predator Miridae Campyloneura virgula
predator Miridae Isometopus intrusus
leaf predator Miridae Phytocoris populi
predator Miridae Deraeocoris trifasciatus
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Mustha longispinis
leaf predator Miridae Deraeocoris flavilinea
leaf vagrant Miridae Phytocoris dimidiatus
leaf vagrant Tingidae Monosteira unicostata
leaf vagrant Tingidae Monosteira lobulifera
predator Miridae Heterotoma planicornis
predator Miridae Atractotomus mali
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Phyllobius fessus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Phyllobius oblongus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Phyllobius maculicornis
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Phyllobius glaucus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Polydrusus marginatus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Polydrusus inustus
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia brodskyi
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta orientalis
leaf scale Pseudococcidae Pseudococcus comstocki
leaf predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis pyri
stem borer adult Bostrichidae Schistoceros bimaculatus
scale Diaspididae Hemiberlesia lataniae
leaf scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes beckii
scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus pyri
scale Diaspididae Melanaspis inopinata
stem scale Margarodidae Icerya purchasi
stem scale Pseudococcidae Planococcus citri
stem borer Cerambycidae Trichoferus campestris
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Brevipalpus californicus
systemic vagrant Tenuipalpidae Brevipalpus phoenicis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Hyphantria cunea
leaf vagrant Saturniidae Saturnia pyri
stem borer Cerambycidae Parmena balteus
stem scale Coccidae Ceroplastes rusci
stem borer Cerambycidae Cerambyx miles
stem borer Cerambycidae Cerambyx nodulosus
stem scale Coccidae Ceroplastes japonicus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Orthosia cerasi
stem borer Cerambycidae Cerambyx carinatus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Jodia croceago
leaf hidden Tortricidae Epiphyas postvittana
leaf hidden Noctuidae Eupsilia transversa
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lithophane socia
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Allophyes oxyacanthae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Amphipyra pyramidea
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Cosmia pyralina
flower vagrant Noctuidae Agrochola circellaris
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Cosmia trapezina
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Atethmia ambusta
leaf vagrant Erebidae Lymantria dispar
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta strigosa
leaf vagrant Geometridae Alsophila aceraria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Colotois pennaria
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Lamprosticta culta
leaf hidden Peleopodidae Carcina quercana
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta psi
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Trichosea ludifica
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Poecilocampa populi
leaf vagrant Nolidae Nola cucullatella
leaf vagrant Erebidae Euproctis chrysorrhoea
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Eriogaster catax
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Cilix glaucata
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Malacosoma neustria
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Mimas tiliae
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Smerinthus ocellata
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Diloba caeruleocephala
leaf vagrant Erebidae Orgyia antiqua
leaf vagrant Erebidae Calliteara pudibunda
leaf vagrant Geometridae Phigalia pilosaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Erannis defoliaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Agriopis aurantiaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lycia hirtaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Lycia pomonaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Biston betularia
leaf vagrant Drepanidae Cilix hispanica
leaf vagrant Geometridae Chloroclysta siterata
leaf hidden Geometridae Pasiphila rectangulata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Operophtera brumata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia insigniata
leaf vagrant Papilionidae Iphiclides feisthamelii
leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Nymphalis polychloros
leaf vagrant Pieridae Aporia crataegi
leaf vagrant Geometridae Alsophila aescularia
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Rhagades predotae
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Aglaope infausta
leaf vagrant Papilionidae Iphiclides podalirius
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia manca
stem borer Tortricidae Grapholita molesta
stem borer Cossidae Cossus cossus
leaf vagrant Sphingidae Acherontia atropos
stem borer Curculionidae Hylesinus fraxini
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia manca
leaf vagrant Tingidae Physatocheila smreczynskii
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia nitidula
stem borer Buprestidae Chalcophorella fabricii
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia plicata
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia diadema
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia millefolii
stem borer Buprestidae Acmaeodera saxicola
stem borer Buprestidae Acmaeodera ottomana
stem borer Buprestidae Acmaeoderella flavofasciata
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus obscuricollis
stem borer Buprestidae Acmaeodera crinita
stem borer Buprestidae Perotis lugubris
stem borer Buprestidae Capnodis tenebrionis
stem borer Buprestidae Ptosima undecimmaculata
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus roscidus
stem borer Buprestidae Agrilus sinuatus
unknown unknown Rhynchitidae Rhynchites smyrnensis
leaf hidden Yponomeutidae Swammerdamia pyrella
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia umbellatarum
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia salicis
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia semicuprea
stem borer Buprestidae Anthaxia suzannae
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Kyboasca maligna
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Cicadella viridis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Edwardsiana crataegi
leaf vagrant Ricaniidae Ricania speculum
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Arboridia parvula
leaf vagrant adult Cicadellidae Fieberiella bohemica
leaf vagrant Tingidae Physatocheila dumetorum
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Zygina schneideri
fruit borer Drosophilidae Chymomyza amoena
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Aplonobia histricina
stem borer Curculionidae Taphrorychus villifrons
stem borer Curculionidae Hypothenemus eruditus
stem borer Curculionidae Scolytus mali
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborinus saxesenii
stem borer Curculionidae Xyleborus dispar
stem borer Curculionidae Scolytus rugulosus
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia rubrioculus
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia praetiosa
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Eotetranychus pruni
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Eotetranychus aceri
stem borer Curculionidae Magdalis cerasi
leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus subaeneus
leaf vagrant Miridae Closterotomus fulvomaculatus
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips meridionalis
flower hidden Thripidae Thrips minutissimus
unknown unknown Phlaeothripidae Haplothrips andresi
leaf vagrant doubtful Phlaeothripidae Compsothrips albosignatus
stem borer Siricidae Tremex fuscicornis
stem borer Siricidae Tremex magus
leaf vagrant Phlaeothripidae Cephalothrips coxalis
flower borer Nitidulidae Meligethes flavimanus
flower borer Nitidulidae Meligethes atratus
leaf vagrant adult Chrysomelidae Orsodacne lineola
unknown unknown Chrysomelidae Orsodacne humeralis
leaf vagrant adult Chrysomelidae Luperus xanthopoda
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium persicae
leaf gall rarely Psyllidae Cacopsylla mali
leaf bud hidden Thripidae Taeniothrips inconsequens
stem borer Curculionidae Magdalis ruficornis
stem borer Curculionidae Magdalis barbicornis
unknown unknown Rhynchitidae Rhynchites slovenicus
unknown unknown Rhynchitidae Rhynchites giganteus
unknown unknown Rhynchitidae Rhynchites lenaeus
leaf leaf spot Pleosporales Didymella pomorum
leaf vagrant Cimbicidae Cimbex quadrimaculatus
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Caliroa cerasi
stem borer Xiphydryiidae Xiphydria longicollis
fruit borer Tenthredinidae Hoplocampa brevis
leaf hidden Tenthredinidae Pamphilius sylvaticus
stem borer Cephidae Janus compressus
leaf hidden Pamphilidae Neurotoma saltuum
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Yponomeuta malinellus
stem scale Eriococcidae Acanthococcus aceris
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ancylis selenana
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus perniciosus
leaf hidden Tortricidae Hedya pruniana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Eudemis porphyrana
leaf vagrant Tortricidae Cacoecimorpha pronubana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ancylis tineana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Hedya nubiferana
leaf hidden Yponomeutidae Yponomeuta padella
leaf vagrant Ypsolophidae Ypsolopha scabrella
leaf vagrant Ypsolophidae Ypsolopha horridella
leaf hidden doubtful Pyralidae Acrobasis advenella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Recurvaria leucatella
leaf hidden Gelechiidae Teleiodes vulgella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Rhopobota naevana
leaf hidden Pyralidae Acrobasis obtusella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Notocelia trimaculana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Spilonota ocellana
fruit borer Tortricidae Pammene argyrana
fruit borer Tortricidae Pammene rhediella
stem gall Helotiales Neofabraea perennans
stem gall Helotiales Neofabraea malicorticis
stem gall Diaporthales Diaporthe perniciosa
stem oviposition scar egg Membracidae Stictocephala bisonia
leaf hidden Tortricidae Clepsis spectrana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Choristoneura lafauryana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips crataegana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips rosana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Choristoneura hebenstreitella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips podana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Archips xylosteana
leaf vagrant Tingidae Stephanitis pyri
leaf hidden Tortricidae Choristoneura diversana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis heparana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis cinnamomeana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Pandemis cerasana
fruit borer Tortricidae Cydia pomonella
leaf hidden Tortricidae Sparganothis pilleriana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Adoxophyes orana
stem gall Hypocreales Neonectria ditissima
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis
leaf hidden Tortricidae Neosphaleroptera nubilana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris cristana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris holmiana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris rhombana
leaf hidden Tortricidae Acleris variegana
fruit borer Tortricidae Cydia pyrivora
stem borer Tortricidae Enarmonia formosana
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus pritchardi
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus ruber
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus eriobotryi
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Brevipalpus obovatus
systemic vagrant Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus lanceolatisetae
leaf pustule aecia doubtful Pucciniales Gymnosporangium asiaticum
stem borer spring generation rarely Gelechiidae Anarsia lineatella
fruit borer summer generation Gelechiidae Anarsia lineatella
leaf bud borer larva Curculionidae Anthonomus kirschi
stem borer larva Rhynchitidae Rhynchites caeruleus
fruit borer larva rarely Rhynchitidae Rhynchites auratus
fruit borer larva Rhynchitidae Rhynchites bacchus
leaf gall larva Rhynchitidae Byctiscus betulae
fruit borer larva Rhynchitidae Tatianaerhynchites aequatus
leaf gall larva rarely Attelabidae Apoderus coryli
leaf miner Rhynchitidae Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurocanthus spiniferus
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Siphoninus phillyreae
leaf vagrant spring generation doubtful Aphididae Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Sappaphis piri
leaf vagrant Aphididae Schizaphis piricola
stem scale Diaspididae Lepidosaphes ulmi
leaf hidden Tortricidae Ditula angustiorana
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon spuleri
stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon myopaeformis
root gall doubtful Aphididae Aploneura ampelina
leaf leaf spot Venturiales Venturia pyrina
leaf scale Coccidae Pulvinaria hydrangeae
leaf vagrant Psyllidae Cacopsylla notata
stem vagrant Psyllidae Cacopsylla bidens
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae
stem borer doubtful Agromyzidae Phytobia carbonaria
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Cenopalpus pulcher
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella irregularis
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Schizaphis pyri
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia pyrivora
fruit pustule Helotiales Monilinia fructigena
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia piri
flower gall Curculionidae Anthonomus pedicularius
flower gall Curculionidae Anthonomus piri
flower gall rarely Curculionidae Anthonomus pomorum
leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Apiomyia bergenstammi
leaf bud gall Curculionidae Anthonomus spilotus
leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia mali
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera clandestina
leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera leucotricha
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Anuraphis catonii
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Anuraphis farfarae
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Anuraphis subterranea
leaf gall Aphididae Aphis pomi
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Dysaphis plantaginea
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Dysaphis pyri
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Dysaphis reaumuri
leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Melanaphis pyraria
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura pyri
leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus marginemtorquens
leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus pyrifoliae
leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes pseudoinsidiosus
leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes pyri
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla melanoneura
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla pyri
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla pyricola
leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla pyrisuga
leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina bullata
leaf miner rarely Agromyzidae Phytomyza heringiana
leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella
leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys minutus
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora anatipenella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora currucipennella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella
leaf miner main Coleophoridae Coleophora kroneella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora spinella
leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora violacea
leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus oxyacanthae
leaf miner Gelechiidae Recurvaria nanella
leaf miner rarely Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix anguliferella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter anceps
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter corylifoliella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter hostis
leaf miner rarely Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter leucographella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter mespilella
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae
leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter sorbi
leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria pectinea
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera malifoliella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella
leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia prunifoliella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella desperatella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella minusculella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pyri
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pyrivora
leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella stettinensis
leaf miner doubtful Nepticulidae Bohemannia pulverosella
leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia atricollis
leaf miner Yponomeutidae Scythropia crataegella
leaf oviposition scar Tenthredinidae Pristiphora abbreviata
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium clavariiforme
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium confusum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium dobozrakovae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium sabinae
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium tremelloides
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Ochropsora ariae
leaf vagrant spring generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus pyri
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculus schlechtendali
stem borer Cecidomyiidae Resseliella oculiperda
stem gall summer generation Aphididae Eriosoma lanigerum
stem gall Diaspididae Chionaspis salicis
leaf scale rarely Diaspididae Carulaspis juniperi
systemic scale Diaspididae Parlatoria oleae
stem scale Diaspididae Epidiaspis leperii
stem gall Santalaceae Viscum album
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Eriosoma flavum
root vagrant summer generation Aphididae Eriosoma lanuginosum
inquiline Cecidomyiidae Clinodiplosis contariniperda
inquiline Cecidomyiidae Macrolabis pyricola
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora
leaf vagrant spring generation rarely Aphididae Ovatus insitus
stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni
stem scale Pseudococcidae Phenacoccus aceris
fruit vagrant Aphididae Aphanostigma piri
leaf vagrant spring generation rarely Aphididae Anuraphis pyrilaseri
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola
stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis aurantii
stem vagrant summer generation Aphididae Macrosiphum rosae
stem scale rarely Coccidae Pulvinaria vitis

Organ

the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.

PARASITIC MODE

borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.

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IMPORTANT

The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.

 

Last modified 31.i.2023