Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Fragaria vesca

wild strawberry

synonym: Fragaria semperflorens

organparasitic modestagenotetaxonomic groupparasite
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeSciaphobus scitulus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeBrachysomus echinatus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus rugifrons
rootvagrantlarvaCurculionidaeOtiorhynchus ovatus
leafvagrantadultCurculionidaePhyllobius arborator
stemscalePseudococcidaePlanococcus citri
stemscalePseudococcidaePseudococcus longispinus
stemscaleCoccidaeEulecanium tiliae
leafvagrantNoctuidaeSpodoptera cilium
leafvagrantNolidaeMeganola albula
leafvagrantPyralidaeUdea ferrugalis
leafvagrantLasiocampidaeMacrothylacia rubi
leafvagrantGeometridaeMesoleuca albicillata
leafvagrantGeometridaeDysstroma citrata
leafhiddenHesperiidaePyrgus malvae
leafhiddenHesperiidaePyrgus malvoides
leafhiddenHesperiidaePyrgus armoricanus
leafvagrantTetranychidaeBryobia praetiosa
fruitborerTephritidaeCeratitis capitata
leafscaleAleyrodidaeAleyrodes lonicerae
rootvagrantChrysomelidaeBatophila aerata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeClaremontia brevicornis
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeEmpria liturata
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeAllantus truncatus
leafhiddenPamphilidaePamphilius jucundus
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeDulophanes morio
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeMacrophya militaris
leafhiddenPamphilidaePamphilius nemorum
leafvagrantTenthredinidaeAllantus calceatus
leafhiddenTortricidaeAcleris aspersana
leafvagrantTortricidaeAcleris comariana
leafvagrantEriophyidaeTegonotus fragariae
leafvagrantPhytoptidaeSierraphytoptus ambulans
leafleaf spotCapnodialesRamularia grevilleana
leafgallTarsonemidaePhytonemus pallidus
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella splendidissimella
leafvagrantAphididaeAcyrthosiphon malvae rogersii
systemicvagrantAphididaeAphis ruborum
leafdownErysiphalesPodosphaera aphanis
leafdownPeronosporalesPeronospora fragariae
leafgallPhytoptidaeFragariocoptes setiger
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza idaeiana
leafminerAgromyzidaeAgromyza sulfuriceps
leafminerBuprestidaeTrachys fragariae
leafminerdoubtfulColeophoridaeColeophora albicostella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora flavipennella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora gryphipennella
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora potentillae
leafminerColeophoridaeColeophora violacea
leafminerdoubtfulDouglasiidaeTinagma perdicella
leafminermainIncurvariidaeIncurvaria praelatella
leafminerNepticulidaeEctoedemia arcuatella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella aeneofasciella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella aurella
leafminerNepticulidaeStigmella thuringiaca
leafminerTenthredinidaeFenella nigrita
leafvagrantAphididaeMacrosiphum euphorbiae
leafvagrantAphididaeChaetosiphon fragaefolii
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis forbesi
leafvagrantAphididaeAphis gossypii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 26.xii.2021